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Omics of human plasma lipoproteins : role in cardiometabolic diseases

Abstract : Omics aims at the collective characterization and quantification of pools of biological molecules that translate into our understanding of the structure and function of an organism and/or its components. Human plasma lipoproteins play important roles in the development of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, central adiposity and cardiovascular disease (CVD), all collectively referred to as cardiometabolic disease (CMD). Indeed, decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (HDL-C) and increased levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (LDL-C) are known to be associated with an increased risk of CMD. Despite successes in the development of drugs normalizing LDL-C levels, CMD still account for the majority of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Our further attempts in decreasing CMD risk do not always succeed reflecting among others our poor grasp of lipoprotein biology which includes, as key elements, biological function and compositional features of lipoprotein particles that make them distinctly indispensable for healthy metabolic conditions. Major advances have been made in our understanding of the proteome of HDL and LDL, while their lipidome and glycome has not enjoyed much attention of scientific community. This thesis focuses on lipidomics and glycomics of human plasma HDL and LDL in respect to their biological functions in healthy subjects and in patients with CMD, including familial apoA-I deficiency (FAID), a genetically determined dyslipidemia resulting in elevated cardiovascular (CV) risk, and ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI), an acute presentation of CVD.
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  • HAL Id : tel-03001290, version 1

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Emil Zakiev. Omics of human plasma lipoproteins : role in cardiometabolic diseases. Human health and pathology. Sorbonne Université, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019SORUS436⟩. ⟨tel-03001290⟩

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