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Impacts des nanoplastiques et microplastiques sur les premiers stades de vie (gamètes, embryons, larves) de l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas

Abstract : For 70 years, mismanaged plastic waste accumulates in the oceans. Risk assessment of this contamination is a major concern, especially regarding micro- and presumably nanoplastics (MNP; <5 mm) which are bioavailable for most marine species. The objective of this thesis was to assess adverse effects of MNP to early life stages of the oyster Crassostrea gigas, a key engineer species in coastal ecosystems. MNP toxicity on oyster young stages depended on the particle size. The high surface area- to - volume ratio of polystyrene nanobeads (nano- PS; 50 nm) promoted their reactivity and interactions with biological membranes of gametes and embryos, leading to an inhibition of the fertilization and embryogenesis success while 0.5 and 2 μm polystyrene beads had any detectable effects. The nano-PS toxicity depended on the particle surface properties (e.g. surface functionalization and charge) which govern their aggregation in seawater and affinity with biological membranes. Furthermore, cationic nano- PS which remained at nanometric scale in seawater, had the highest toxic potential to oyster gametes and embryos. Embryonic exposure to these particles at a non-lethal dose reduced first generation larval performances and modulated larval growth at the second generation in response to the same embryonic exposure. All adverse effects were observed at supposedly unrealistic environmental concentrations (no in situ data exists on NP), suggesting low risk of polystyrene beads to oyster early life stages. Future studies will have to take into account the complexity and reality of MNP in oceans (e.g. polymer and shape diversity, concentrations, contaminants adsorption) to assess effects on bivalve species across generations in order to establish more accurately the risks for coastal environments.
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Kevin Tallec. Impacts des nanoplastiques et microplastiques sur les premiers stades de vie (gamètes, embryons, larves) de l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas. Biologie animale. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019BRES0103⟩. ⟨tel-02996550⟩

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