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Phylogéographie et évolution moléculaire chez les Procellariiformes : apport à la diversification des oiseaux marins

Abstract : The purpose of conservation genetics is to protect both genetic diversity and the processes that shaped it, and to understand them. Procellariiformes (shearwaters, petrels and albatrosses) represent many species with high dispersal capacities but a strong philopatric behavior and with strong conservation needs. We conducted a multi-locus study on the Audubon shearwater complex, Puffinus lherminieri, from the North Atlantic and its two sister lineages in the Indian Ocean. We first showed that the genetic markers used here, and typically used to study the phylogeography of seabirds, were subject to introgression, hybridization, heteroplasmy, and the duplication and pseudogenisation of some mitochondrial genes. All of these phenomena have an impact on the quality and quantity of information produced by these markers. We led a comparative study and showed how best to manage some of these data problems and their treatment. We have also investigated the composition of the mitochondrial duplicated region and show that it have a complex evolution within the Procellariiformes and may have an influence on their biology and conservation. Finally, we have shown the influence of continental barriers but especially of sea surface temperature on the differentiation of seabirds. We also uncovered a structuration of the shearwater complex that needed to define new conservation priorities.
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Lucas Torres. Phylogéographie et évolution moléculaire chez les Procellariiformes : apport à la diversification des oiseaux marins. Génétique animale. Université de La Rochelle, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LAROS023⟩. ⟨tel-02995731⟩

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