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Médecine et sagesse. Essai sur la philosophie hippocratique

Abstract : The Hippocratic Collection presents this remarkable feature that technical medical texts are strewn with ethical precepts with no apparent link between the two registers. The essay that I am submitting attempts to support the following hypothesis: if the Hippocratic doctors did not distinguish, in their writings, ethics and technique, it is because these ethical precepts are derived from medicine in the same way as the techniques of care . Hence the general question of my work: What is Hippocratic medicine, as long as it produces not only healing techniques, but also ethics? What is this ethics, insofar as it is produced by medical thought? The essay is primarily devoted to the first of these two questions. He tries to show that Hippocratic medicine is not a simple technique which would have recourse to philosophy, morals, religion or politics with regard to the relative problems, upstream, to its epistemological foundations or those relating, downstream, to the regulation of its applications. Indeed, unlike techniques, Hippocratic medicine cannot produce a defined object. Medical concepts apply in all fields. The only possible definition of Hippocratic medicine concerns its end: human health. Hippocratic physicians have developed a thought which enables them to attempt to give human life the greatest amplitude and the longest duration. Medicine as a whole is an ethic of health. This attitude which I call the medical resolution is opposed, in my opinion, to the philosophical approach which arose around the same time. Indeed, only medicine is the human assumption of the value promoted by life itself, namely health. Philosophy, for its part, seeks to justify life by enclosing it in a network of logos which exceeds it on all sides. All medical thought is directed towards this end: to give life its widest range. Now, if it is true that we do not treat man, but the individual, medicine has had to develop a method targeting the singular. Plato testifies, in the Phaedrus, of this method. It is a matter of relating the part to the totality on which it depends.
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Laurent Ayache. Médecine et sagesse. Essai sur la philosophie hippocratique. Histoire, Philosophie et Sociologie des sciences. Université de Nice - Sophia Antipolis, 1997. Français. ⟨tel-02990447⟩



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