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Theses

Analyse et traitement des signaux oscillomètriques pour la mesure de la pression artérielle systolique et la détermination des caractéristiques biomécaniques de la paroi artérielle.

Abstract : Our thesis is devoted to the development of a new oscillometric signal analysis approach to measure systolic blood pressure and identify subjects with abnormal arterial wall rigidity. Oscillometry, widely used for the non-invasive automatic measurement of blood pressure, is based on the amplitude of the dynamic cuff-pressure oscillations generated by the expansion of the brachial artery at the arrival of the pulse wave.We first conducted a literature review on the auscultatory and oscillometric methods. The auscultatory method, based on the detection of the sounds emitted by the brachial artery under the cuff, remains the reference for the validation of oscillometric monitors. Since the description of these sounds by Nicolai Korotkoff in 1905, many authors attempted to explain their origin and assess their limits and pitfalls in comparison with direct intra-arterial blood pressure measurement.Oscillometric technique derive from the sphygmograph built by Etienne-Jules Marey in 1859. Manufacturers validate their oscillometric devices in reference to the international standards (ISO) without revealing the algorithms they use. Numerous approaches have been proposed, from fixed empirical ratios to neural networks to various mathematical models, for the calculation of systolic and diastolic pressure since only the mean arterial pressure is actually measured on the oscillometric curve. However, oscillometry yields variable results and produces significant errors, especially for systolic pressure, notably in patients with cardiovascular risk factors.Based on this analysis, and considering that the reference remains the detection of Korotkoff sounds, we sought to better understand their mechanisms. We recorded ultrasound images and the Doppler signal of the brachial artery under the cuff when measuring blood pressure in volunteers, simultaneously with ECG, cuff pressure and Korotkoff sounds. We could record the systolic diameter changes of the brachial artery during cuff deflation, and measure the local pulse wave velocity, as well as the time delay between the oscillometric signal, the ECG and the Korotkoff sounds. We were able to demonstrate that the Korotkoff sounds are produced by arterial wall vibration under the impact of the pulse wave, then by blood flow turbulence, and we measured the marked decrease in local pulse wave velocity when the cuff inflation reduces the brachial artery transmural pressure.We concluded to the interest of pulse waveform analysis, and designed an innovative approach based on its temporal characteristics for the direct determination of systolic blood pressure. We conducted a prospective clinical study, according to a protocol approved by the Ethics Committee of the Nîmes University Hospital Center, to validate our new approach. We compared our technique to the auscultation method in 145 subjects with or without cardiovascular risk factors, and to direct blood pressure measurement with a radial catheter in 35 patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit. We obtained an excellent correlation with the first Korotkoff sound, with better results than conventional oscillometry. In addition, our technique has proven able to identify subjects with cardiovascular risk factors with an accuracy favorably comparable to aortic pulse wave velocity.
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Amir Mokhfi Benmira. Analyse et traitement des signaux oscillomètriques pour la mesure de la pression artérielle systolique et la détermination des caractéristiques biomécaniques de la paroi artérielle.. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Montpellier, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016MONTT046⟩. ⟨tel-02986825⟩

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