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Etude du tropisme rénal du syndrome hémolytique et urémique atypique : susceptibilité endothéliale glomérulaire à l'hème et découverte de RAGE comme un nouveau récepteur de l'hème

Abstract : The atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a thrombotic microangiopathy of which the predominantly renal damage remains, to date, misunderstood. The aim of this work was to improve the understanding of this organ tropism by two axes of study: i) the susceptibility of the glomerular endothelium to hemolysis, which is the consequence of microthrombosis in aHUS, and also an complement pathway enhancer via free heme, hemoglobin-mediated hemolysis molecule, ii) the potential role of the receptor for advanced glycation end products, RAGE. Indeed, RAGE is described as an endothelial receptor with high proinflammatory and prothrombotic potential, involved in many kidney diseases; a team also reported that it was a receptor for the C3a molecule, anaphylatoxin released in complement activation.The first part of this work aimed to explain the vulnerability of the glomerular endothelium under the effect of hemolysis. We studied several types of endothelial cells exposed +/- to heme, and developed a murine model treated with heme. In hemolytic conditions, several factors that could participate in the endothelial glomerular susceptibility have been put forward: i) less binding of factor H, the main complement regulator, on its surface; ii) low expression of thrombomodulin, coagulation protein and complement regulator; iii) low expression of heme-oxygenase 1, the main heme degradation enzyme. These last two points were related to low induction, on glomerular endothelial cells, of transcription factors, KFL2 and KLF4.The second part of this work focused on RAGE. Having failed to reproduce the RAGE / C3a interaction, we explored the hypothesis of a linkage of RAGE to heme. Indeed, the only known endothelial receptor is Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4), which shares several common ligands (LPS - lipopolysaccharide, HMGB1 - high-mobility group box 1). We found that RAGE was a heme receptor, and identified that the binding site was on domain V. Using a mouse model knock out for RAGE and treated +/- with heme, we demonstrated that i) the invalidation of RAGE had a protective effect in case of exposure to heme, marked by a decrease in the expression of genes of inflammation (IL1β; TNFα; and tissue factor) at the pulmonary level, organ expressing most strongly RAGE, ii) the heme is an activator or the phosphorylation of ERK1 / 2 and Akt pathways via RAGE.Through this work, we have clarified the links between complement activation, hemolysis and glomerular endothelial susceptibility in aHUS. At the same time, we have identified RAGE as a new heme receptor, whose RAGE/heme bindind would activate different signaling pathways for inflammation. The control of heme and RAGE could constitute new therapeutic pathways in the aHUS, and hemolytic diseases.
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Olivia May. Etude du tropisme rénal du syndrome hémolytique et urémique atypique : susceptibilité endothéliale glomérulaire à l'hème et découverte de RAGE comme un nouveau récepteur de l'hème. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LIL2S041⟩. ⟨tel-02984436⟩

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