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Etude de transferts horizontaux de matériel génétique entre virus et animaux

Abstract : Horizontal transfers (HTs) of DNA are increasingly recognized as an important phenomenon in the evolution of metazoans. The vast majority of HTs between animals involves transposable elements (TEs), selfish genomic sequences capable of moving by transposition in the genome and thus generating multiple copies. While these HTs of TEs seem to have a major role in the evolution of metazoans, the mechanisms underlying these HTs remain poorly understood. One possible mechanism involves viruses which could be vectors of DNA between the hosts they infect. This thesis helps to evaluate this hypothesis.In the first chapter, we studied the impact of stress caused by a viral infection on the activity of TEs. Some TEs are overexpressed during infection, and some are also expressed after their insertion into viral genomes.In the second chapter, we have broadened the spectrum of host-virus systems known to date, in which host TEs transpose into viral genomes. Analysis of 11 of these systems revealed nine new systems in which host TEs were found in the genomes of the virus. This study allowed us to infer the capacity of TEs carried by viral genomes to transpose to other viral genomes, which constitutes one of the major results of this thesis.In the third chapter, the construction of a bioinformatics pipeline has made it possible to characterize many complete TE insertions in viral genomes, as well as the diversity of structural genomic variants present in four populations of large double-stranded DNA viruses.In the final chapter, the integration of a complete murine retrovirus genome into the genome of a human cell line was characterized, providing additional results on the virus HTs in the host.Overall, this work sheds new light on the role of viruses in DNA HTs in metazoans.
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Vincent Loiseau. Etude de transferts horizontaux de matériel génétique entre virus et animaux. Evolution [q-bio.PE]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020UPASL018⟩. ⟨tel-02983223⟩

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