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Instrumentation et diagnostic des pathologies structurelles des phares

Abstract : Lighthouses represent an invaluable cultural and technical heritage that must be preserved as long as possible. This manuscript thesis focuses on the case of masonry lighthouses built over the coast, which are exposed to environmental actions but not to the wave action. These lighthouses, mostly built during the 19th century and until the beginning of the 20th century, show structural disorders. The aim of the thesis is to formulate a structural diagnosis method based on a structural health monitoring implemented on the structure. The case study of the research is the Ile Vierge lighthouse, currently being the tallest stone masonry lighthouse in Europe due to its 80.0m high. It was built between 1897 and 1902 on an island located at the West of Finistère with two local construction materials (granite and kersanton stones). In 2011, Service des Phares et Balises notices the presence of a vertical cracking pattern in the upper part of the tower. The cracks prevail over the entire height of the lantern's basement wall, where the lantern support is fixed by 16 metal embedded anchors. This thesis focuses to find the origin of cracks by data analyses from the structural health monitoring implemented on the lighthouse and to formulate a diagnosis methodology for this type of buildings. The hypotheses studied are wind actions as well as thermal actions on the structure. The multidisciplinary research method considers the mechanical characterization of rocks, the calculation of mechanical actions presents on the structure, the collection of data from the health structural monitoring and the statistical analysis by multivariable correlation. The opening crack is analyzed according with the actions considered. In addition, the approach exposes how cyclic thermal actions and fatigue phenomena can generate stresses close to the tensile strength of kersanton and therefore explain the crack vertical pattern.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, October 27, 2020 - 10:14:19 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, October 28, 2020 - 3:23:57 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-02979282, version 1


Luisa Pena. Instrumentation et diagnostic des pathologies structurelles des phares. Génie civil. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020TOU30037⟩. ⟨tel-02979282⟩



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