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Modifications du sommeil liées à l'âge : liens avec la cognition et les biomarqueurs du vieillissement et de la maladie d'Alzheimer en neuroimagerie

Abstract : Sleep changes are a major feature of the ageing process, and sleep disturbances are increasingly recognized as a risk factor for cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the brain mechanisms underlying this association are still unclear. The objective of this thesis was to deepen our understanding about brain structural, functional and molecular correlates of the main objective sleep changes in ageing, and to assess the potential links with cognitive performance. Our results demonstrate that the fragmentation of the first sleep cycles and the alteration of slow wave activity, are associated with reduced gray matter metabolism, perfusion and/or volume in fronto-cingulate and hippocampal areas. Moreover, sleep-disordered breathing and rapid eye movement sleep microstructure alterations were related to increased amyloid burden respectively in the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, or more widespread neocortical areas. However, associations with cognitive performance remained subtle or inexistent, suggesting early and asymptomatic associations between sleep and brain changes. Therefore, sleep may contribute to resilience processes and may help to cope with early neuropathological changes in AD. These results support the need to screen and treat sleep disturbances in older adults, before the onset of the first cognitive signs, in order to slow cognitive decline.
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Claire Andre. Modifications du sommeil liées à l'âge : liens avec la cognition et les biomarqueurs du vieillissement et de la maladie d'Alzheimer en neuroimagerie. Psychologie. Normandie Université, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019NORMC021⟩. ⟨tel-02974665⟩

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