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La construction inchoative en arabe : étude contrastive avec le français "commencer (à/par/de)" et "se mettre à"

Abstract : This thesis in contrast linguistics aims to study the syntactic-semantic specificities of inchoative verbs in Arabic and compare them with those of start to (commencer (à/par/de)) and to begin (se mettre à) in French. We relied on a corpus of French and Arabic literary texts from the following authors (Najube Mahfouz, Marcel Pagnol and Albert Camus). According to our corpus, inchoative verbs can appear in the following simple constructions : (subject + inchoative verb + direct object complement, indirect object complement, adverb or without complement), as well as in compound constructions (subject + V1 accomplished inchoative verb + V2 uncompleted) in Arabic, and (S + conjugated V1 + V2 infinitive) in French. Our analysis is based on the syntactic frameworks proposed by Peeters (1993). Indeed, the application of this theory and the syntactic variation of the grammatical elements of the Arabic sentence lead us, first, to propose different syntactic frameworks of certain inchoative Arabic verbs found in our corpus by determining their syntactic and semantic specificities. Concerning the simple form of inchoative verbs in Arabic, بدأ (bada'a) is the most frequently used verb. It is compatible with certain prepositions and accepts any type of subject and complement. As a result, it is distinguished by six grammatical constructions and four syntactic frames. On the other hand, the verbs هم (hamma), شرع (šara῾a) and أخذ ('aẖaḏa), in their simple use, each of them is governed only by a preposition, therefore, their simple construction is mainly characterized by a syntactic framework. In addition, the verb راح (rāḫa) is combined with two syntactic frames. Regarding their compound form, it should be noted that all inchoative verbs in Arabic are shared by a compound construction (S + V1 completed + V2 uncompleted). Semantically, most of these verbs are characterized by an imperfective value. It should be noted that the verb بدأ (bada'a) conveys a determinative as well as a non-determinative value. On the other hand, the verb شرع (šara῾a) is defined only by a perfective value, whereas هم (hamma) by a semi-perfective value. Therefore, from the results of Peeters as well as ours, we find that, on the one hand, the verb بدأ (bada'a) and commencer (à/par/de) are almost syntactically and semantically equivalent. On the other hand, the verbs هم (hamma) and se mettre à always serve to indicate speed and suddenness, but the action of the former is always semi-perfective. We can say that there are always points of divergence and convergence between inchoative verbs in both languages (Arabic and French). In fact, the relation between arabic verbs هم (hamma), راح (rāḫa), بات (bāta), مضى (maḍā), أصبح (aṣbaḫa), أقبل (aqbala), جعل (ǧa'ala), أخذ (aẖaḏa), أنشأ ('anša'a), قام (qāma), انطلق ('inṭalaqa), هب (habba) and se mettre à in French is the fact that their inchoative use is governed by a grammaticalization.Finally, based on the written productions of FLE Libyan learners, we have tried to identify pedagogical approaches in order to identify the origin of the difficulties in the use of verbs, commencer (à/par/de) et se mettre à.
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Maryam Al Besht. La construction inchoative en arabe : étude contrastive avec le français "commencer (à/par/de)" et "se mettre à". Linguistique. Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020UBFCC003⟩. ⟨tel-02972105⟩

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