J. Bourgalais, N. Carrasco, L. Vettier, and P. Pernot, Low-Pressure EUV Photochemical Experiments: Insight on the Ion Chemistry Occurring in Titan's Atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Sp. Phys, vol.124, pp.9214-9228, 2019.

J. Bourgalais, N. Jamal-eddine, B. Joalland, M. Capron, M. Balaganesh et al., Elusive anion growth in Titan's atmosphere: Low temperature kinetics of the C3N-+ HC3N reaction, Icarus, vol.271, pp.194-201, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01272629

Y. Brouet, A. C. Levasseur-regourd, P. Sabouroux, L. Neves, P. Encrenaz et al., A porosity gradient in 67P/C-G nucleus suggested from CONSERT and SESAME-PP results: An interpretation based on new laboratory permittivity measurements of porous icy analogues, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc, vol.462, pp.89-98, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01367398

R. H. Brown, L. A. Soderblom, J. M. Soderblom, R. N. Clark, R. Jaumann et al., The identification of liquid ethane in Titan's Ontario Lacus, Nature, vol.454, pp.607-610, 2008.

M. Cabane and E. Chassefière, Laboratory simulations of Titan's atmosphere: organic gases and aerosols, Planet. Space Sci, vol.43, pp.47-65, 1995.

L. A. Capone, R. C. Whitten, J. Dubach, S. S. Prasad, and W. T. Huntress, The lower ionosphere of Titan, Icarus, vol.28, pp.367-378, 1976.

N. Carrasco, C. Alcaraz, O. Dutuit, S. Plessis, R. Thissen et al., Sensitivity of a Titan ionospheric model to the ion-molecule reaction parameters, Planet. Space Sci, vol.56, pp.1644-1657, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00360084

N. Carrasco, T. Gautier, E. Es-sebbar, . Touhami, P. Pernot et al., Volatile products controlling Titan's tholins production, Icarus, vol.219, pp.230-240, 2012.

N. Carrasco, A. Giuliani, J. J. Correia, and G. Cernogora, VUV photochemistry simulation of planetary upper atmosphere using synchrotron radiation, J. Synchrotron Radiat, vol.20, pp.587-589, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00830939

,

N. Carrasco, F. Jomard, J. Vigneron, A. Etcheberry, and G. Cernogora, Laboratory analogues simulating Titan's atmospheric aerosols: Compared chemical compositions of grains and thin films, Planet. Space Sci, vol.128, pp.52-57, 2016.

N. Carrasco, I. Schmitz-afonso, J. Y. Bonnet, E. Quirico, R. Thissen et al., Chemical characterization of titan's tholins: Solubility, morphology and molecular structure revisited, J. Phys. Chem. A, vol.113, pp.11195-11203, 2009.

N. Carrasco, S. Tigrine, L. Gavilan, L. Nahon, and M. S. Gudipati, The evolution of Titan's high-altitude aerosols under ultraviolet irradiation, Nat. Astron, vol.2, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01767663

P. Chaizy, H. Rème, J. A. Sauvaud, C. D'uston, R. P. Lin et al., Negative ions in the coma of comet Halley, Nature, vol.349, pp.393-396, 1991.

S. Chang, T. Scattergood, S. Aronowitz, and J. Flores, Organic chemistry on Titan. Rev. Geophys, vol.17, 1923.

B. Charnay, F. Forget, R. Wordsworth, J. Leconte, E. Millour et al., Exploring the faint young Sun problem and the possible climates of the Archean Earth with a 3-D GCM, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos, vol.118, pp.414-424, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01092200

D. W. Clarke and J. P. Ferris, Titan haze: Structure and properties of cyanoacetylene and cyanoacetyleneacetylene photopolymers, Icarus, vol.127, pp.158-172, 1997.

A. J. Coates, Interaction of Titan's ionosphere with Saturn's magnetosphere, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A Math, p.61, 2009.

, Phys. Eng. Sci, vol.367, pp.773-788

A. J. Coates, F. J. Crary, G. R. Lewis, D. T. Young, J. J. Waite et al., Discovery of heavy negative ions in Titan's ionosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.34, p.22103, 2007.

A. J. Coates, F. J. Crary, D. T. Young, K. Szego, C. S. Arridge et al., Ionospheric electrons in Titan's tail: Plasma structure during the Cassini T9 encounter, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.34, pp.24-29, 2007.

A. J. Coates, G. H. Jones, G. R. Lewis, A. Wellbrock, D. T. Young et al., Negative ions in the Enceladus plume, Icarus, vol.206, pp.618-622, 2010.

,

A. J. Coates, A. Wellbrock, G. R. Lewis, G. H. Jones, D. T. Young et al., Heavy negative ions in Titan's ionosphere: Altitude and latitude dependence, Planet. Space Sci, vol.57, pp.1866-1871, 2009.

A. J. Coates, A. Wellbrock, G. R. Lewis, G. H. Jones, D. T. Young et al., Negative ions at Titan and Enceladus: Recent results, Faraday Discuss, vol.147, pp.293-305, 2010.

P. Coll, D. Coscia, N. Smith, M. C. Gazeau, S. I. Ramírez et al., Experimental laboratory simulation of Titan's atmosphere: Aerosols and gas phase, Planet. Space Sci, vol.47, pp.54-63, 1999.

D. Cordier and N. Carrasco, The floatability of aerosols and wave damping on Titan's seas, Nat. Geosci, vol.12, pp.315-320, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-02112962

R. Courtin, Aerosols on the Giant Planets and Titan, Space Sci. Rev, vol.116, pp.185-199, 2005.

A. Coustenis, A. Salama, B. Schulz, S. Ott, E. Lellouch et al., Titan's atmosphere from ISO mid-infrared spectroscopy, Icarus, vol.161, issue.02, pp.28-31, 2003.

F. J. Crary, B. A. Magee, K. Mandt, J. H. Waite, J. Westlake et al., Heavy ions, temperatures and winds in Titan's ionosphere: Combined Cassini CAPS and INMS observations, Planet. Space Sci, vol.57, pp.1847-1856, 2009.

T. E. Cravens, I. P. Robertson, S. A. Ledvina, D. Mitchell, S. M. Krimigis et al., Energetic ion precipitation at Titan, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.35, p.3103, 2008.

T. E. Cravens, I. P. Robertson, J. H. Waite, R. V. Yelle, W. T. Kasprzak et al., Composition of Titan's ionosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.33, p.7105, 2006.

N. J. Edberg, D. J. Andrews, C. Bertucci, D. A. Gurnett, M. K. Holmberg et al., Effects of Saturn's magnetospheric dynamics on Titan's ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Sp. Phys, vol.120, pp.8884-8898, 2015.

N. J. Edberg, D. J. Andrews, O. Shebanits, K. Ågren, J. E. Wahlund et al., Solar cycle modulation of Titan's ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Sp. Phys, vol.118, pp.5255-5264, 2013.

E. T. Es-sebbar, Y. Bénilan, N. Fray, H. Cottin, A. Jolly et al., Optimization of a solar simulator for planetary-photochemical studies, Astrophys. Journal, Suppl. Ser, vol.218, 2015.

F. M. Flasar, R. K. Achterberg, B. J. Conrath, P. J. Gierasch, V. G. Kunde et al., Titan's atmospheric temperatures, winds, and composition, Science, vol.308, pp.975-978, 2005.

M. Fulchignoni, F. Ferri, F. Angrilli, A. J. Ball, A. Bar-nun et al., Nature, vol.438, pp.785-791, 2005.

T. Gautier, N. Carrasco, A. Buch, C. Szopa, E. Sciamma-o'brien et al., Nitrile gas chemistry in Titan atmosphere, Icarus, vol.213, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00587777

T. Gautier, N. Carrasco, A. Mahjoub, S. Vinatier, A. Giuliani et al., Mid-and far-infrared absorption spectroscopy of Titan's aerosols analogues, pp.320-327, 2012.

T. Gautier, N. Carrasco, I. Stefanovic, B. Sikimic, G. Cernogora et al., Methane conversion in a N2-CH4 radiofrequency discharge, Plasma Process. Polym, vol.11, pp.472-481, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00955871

,

T. Gautier, I. Schmitz-afonso, D. Touboul, C. Szopa, A. Buch et al., Development of HPLC-Orbitrap method for identification of N-bearing molecules in complex organic material relevant to planetary environments, Icarus, vol.275, pp.259-266, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01309178

T. Gautier, J. A. Sebree, X. Li, V. T. Pinnick, A. Grubisic et al., Influence of trace aromatics on the chemical growth mechanisms of Titan aerosol analogues, Planet. Space Sci, vol.140, pp.27-34, 2017.

F. C. Gillett, Further observations of the 8-13 micron spectrum of Titan, Astrophys. J, vol.201, 1975.

C. R. Glein and E. L. Shock, A geochemical model of non-ideal solutions in the methane-ethane-propanenitrogen-acetylene system on Titan, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol.115, pp.217-240, 2013.

,

R. Grard, M. Hamelin, J. J. López-moreno, K. Schwingenschuh, I. Jernej et al., Electric properties and related physical characteristics of the atmosphere and surface of Titan, Planet. Space Sci, vol.54, pp.1124-1136, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00157800

G. Gronoff, J. Lilensten, L. Desorgher, and E. Flückiger, Ionization processes in the atmosphere of Titan -I. Ionization in the whole atmosphere, Astron. Astrophys, vol.506, pp.955-964, 2009.

G. Gronoff, J. Lilensten, and R. Modolo, Ionization processes in the atmosphere of Titan II. Electron precipitation along magnetic field lines, Astron. Astrophys, vol.506, pp.965-970, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00414760

G. Gronoff, C. Mertens, J. Lilensten, L. Desorgher, E. Flückiger et al., Ionization processes in the atmosphere of Titan-III. Ionization by high-Z nuclei cosmic rays, Astron. Astrophys, vol.529, 2011.

S. Guerlet, T. Fouchet, S. Vinatier, A. A. Simon, E. Dartois et al., Stratospheric benzene and hydrocarbon aerosols detected in Saturn's auroral regions, Astron. Astrophys, vol.580, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02384522

D. A. Gurnett, W. S. Kurth, C. B. Hospodarsky, A. M. Persoon, T. F. Averkamp et al., Radio and plasma wave obervations at Saturn from Cassini's approach and first orbit, Science, vol.307, pp.1255-1259, 2005.

D. A. Gurnett, W. S. Kurth, D. L. Kirchner, G. B. Hospodarsky, T. F. Averkamp et al., The Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation, pp.395-463, 2004.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00151770

E. Hadamcik, J. B. Renard, G. Alcouffe, G. Cernogora, A. C. Levasseur-regourd et al., Laboratory lightscattering measurements with Titan's aerosols analogues produced by a dusty plasma, Planet. Space Sci, vol.57, pp.1631-1641, 2009.

E. Hadamcik, J. B. Renard, A. Mahjoub, T. Gautier, N. Carrasco et al., Optical properties of analogs of Titan's aerosols produced by dusty plasma. Earth, Planets Sp, vol.65, pp.1175-1184, 2013.

S. Hadavandkhani, B. Nikouravan, and F. Ghazimaghrebi, Artificial aurora and ionospheric heating by HAARP, Adv. Appl. Phys, vol.4, pp.23-30, 2016.

M. Hamelin, C. Béghin, R. Grard, J. J. López-moreno, K. Schwingenschuh et al., Electron conductivity and density profiles derived from the mutual impedance probe measurements performed during the descent of Huygens through the atmosphere of Titan, Planet. Space Sci, vol.55, 1964.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00157802

R. Hanel, B. Conrath, F. M. Flasar, V. Kunde, W. Maguire et al., Infrared observations of the Saturnian system from voyager 1, Science, vol.212, pp.192-200, 1981.

R. Hanel, B. Conrath, F. M. Plasar, V. Kunde, W. Maguire et al., Infrared observations of the Saturnian system from Voyager 2, Science, vol.215, pp.544-548, 1982.

J. D. Haqq-misra, S. D. Domagal-goldman, P. J. Kasting, and J. F. Kasting, A revised, hazy methane greenhouse for the Archean Earth, Astrobiology, vol.8, pp.1127-1137, 2008.

P. J. Hargis, K. E. Greenberg, P. A. Miller, J. B. Gerardo, J. R. Torczynski et al., The Gaseous Electronics Conference radio-frequency reference cell: A defined parallel-plate radio-frequency system for experimental and theoretical studies of plasma-processing discharges, Rev. Sci. Instrum, vol.65, pp.140-154, 1994.

J. Hargreaves, The solar-terrestrial environment: an introduction to geospaceSthe science of the terrestrial upper atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere, 1992.

O. Havnes, J. Trøim, T. Blix, W. Mortensen, L. I. Naesheim et al., First detection of charged dust particles in the Earth's mesosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Sp. Phys, vol.101, pp.10839-10847, 1996.

A. G. Hayes, The Lakes and Seas of Titan, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci, vol.44, pp.57-83, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00405428

A. G. Hayes, R. D. Lorenz, and J. I. Lunine, A post-Cassini view of Titan's methane-based hydrologic cycle, Nat. Geosci, 2018.

J. He, A. Buch, N. Carrasco, and C. Szopa, Thermal degradation of organics for pyrolysis in space: Titan's atmospheric aerosol case study, Icarus, vol.248, pp.205-212, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01075658

P. Hong, Y. Sekine, T. Sasamori, and S. Sugita, Experimental study of heterogeneous organic chemistry induced by far ultraviolet light: Implications for growth of organic aerosols by CH3 addition in the atmospheres of Titan and early Earth, Icarus, vol.307, pp.25-39, 2018.

S. M. Hörst and M. A. Tolbert, In situ measurements of the size and density of titan aerosol analogs, Astrophys. J. Lett, vol.770, 2013.

S. M. Hörst, Y. H. Yoon, M. S. Ugelow, A. H. Parker, R. Li et al., Laboratory investigations of Titan haze formation: In situ measurement of gas and particle composition, Icarus, vol.301, pp.136-151, 2018.

D. M. Hunten, A Titan atmosphere with a surface temperature of 200K, JPL Saturn Syst, pp.127-140, 1978.

H. Imanaka, D. P. Cruikshank, B. N. Khare, and C. P. Mckay, Optical constants of Titan tholins at mid-infrared -65 -wavelengths (2.5-25 ?m) and the possible chemical nature of Titan's haze particles, Icarus, vol.218, pp.247-261, 2012.

H. Imanaka, B. N. Khare, J. E. Elsila, E. L. Bakes, C. P. Mckay et al., Laboratory experiments of Titan tholin formed in cold plasma at various pressures: Implications for nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compounds in Titan haze, Icarus, vol.168, pp.344-366, 2004.

H. Imanaka and M. A. Smith, Formation of nitrogenated organic aerosols in the Titan upper atmosphere, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A, vol.107, pp.12423-12428, 2010.

H. Imanaka and M. A. Smith, Role of photoionization in the formation of complex organic molecules in Titan's upper atmosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.34, p.2204, 2007.

G. Israël, C. Szopa, F. Raulin, M. Cabane, H. B. Niemann et al., Complex organic matter in Titan's atmospheric aerosols from in situ pyrolysis and analysis, Nature, vol.438, pp.796-799, 2005.

M. C. Jacobson, H. Hansson, K. J. Noone, and R. J. Charlson, Organic atmospheric aerosols: Review and state of the science, Rev. Geophys, vol.38, pp.267-294, 2000.

W. Kasprzak, H. Niemann, D. Harpold, J. Richards, H. L. Manning et al., Cassini orbiter ion and neutral mass spectrometer instrument, Cassini/Huygens: A Mission to the Saturnian Systems. International Society for Optics and Photonics, pp.129-140, 1996.

J. F. Kasting, Methane and climate during the Precambrian era, Precambrian Res, vol.137, pp.119-129, 2005.

C. N. Keller, T. E. Cravens, and L. Gan, A model of the ionosphere of Titan, J. Geophys. Res, vol.97, 1992.

D. J. Williams, Magnetosphere Imaging Instrument (MIMI) on the Cassini Mission to Saturn/Titan, in: The Cassini-Huygens Mission, pp.233-329, 2004.

V. G. Kunde, A. C. Aikin, R. A. Hanel, D. E. Jennings, W. C. Maguire et al., C4H2, HC3N and C2N2 in Titan's atmosphere, Nature, vol.292, pp.686-688, 1981.

E. J. Larson, O. B. Toon, R. A. West, and A. J. Friedson, Microphysical modeling of Titan's detached haze layer in a 3D GCM, Icarus, vol.254, pp.122-134, 2015.

P. Lavvas, M. Galand, R. V. Yelle, A. N. Heays, B. R. Lewis et al., Energy deposition and primary chemical products in Titan's upper atmosphere, Icarus, vol.213, pp.233-251, 2011.

P. Lavvas, M. Sander, M. Kraft, and H. Imanaka, Surface chemistry and particle shape: Processes for the evolution of aerosols in Titan's atmosphere, Astrophys. J, vol.728, 2011.

P. Lavvas, R. V. Yelle, and C. A. Griffith, Titan's vertical aerosol structure at the Huygens landing site: Constraints on particle size, density, charge, and refractive index, Icarus, vol.210, pp.832-842, 2010.

P. Lavvas, R. V. Yelle, T. Koskinen, A. Bazin, V. Vuitton et al., Aerosol growth in Titan's ionosphere, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A, vol.110, pp.2729-2734, 2013.

P. P. Lavvas, A. Coustenis, and I. M. Vardavas, Coupling photochemistry with haze formation in Titan's atmosphere, Part I: Model description, Planet. Space Sci, vol.56, pp.27-66, 2008.

,

P. P. Lavvas, A. Coustenis, and I. M. Vardavas, Coupling photochemistry with haze formation in Titan's atmosphere, Part II: Results and validation with Cassini/Huygens data, Planet. Space Sci, vol.56, pp.67-99, 2008.

L. Gall, A. Malaska, M. J. Lorenz, R. D. Janssen, M. A. Tokano et al., Composition, seasonal change, and bathymetry of Ligeia Mare, Titan, derived from its microwave thermal emission, J. Geophys. Res. Planets, vol.121, pp.233-251, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01259869

L. Mouélic, S. Cornet, T. Rodriguez, S. Sotin, C. Seignovert et al., The Cassini VIMS archive of Titan: From browse products to global infrared color maps, Icarus, vol.319, pp.121-132, 2019.

S. Lebonnois, E. L. Bakes, and C. P. Mckay, Transition from gaseous compounds to aerosols in titan's atmosphere, Icarus, vol.159, pp.505-517, 2002.

S. Lebonnois, J. Burgalat, P. Rannou, and B. Charnay, Titan global climate model: A new 3-dimensional version of the IPSL Titan GCM, Icarus, vol.218, pp.707-722, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00752340

A. Lethuillier, A. Le-gall, M. Hamelin, S. Caujolle-bert, F. Schreiber et al., Electrical Properties of Tholins and Derived Constraints on the Huygens Landing Site Composition at the Surface of Titan, J. Geophys. Res. Planets, vol.123, pp.807-822, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01721981

M. Liang, Y. L. Yung, and D. E. Shemansky, Photolytically Generated Aerosols in the Mesosphere and Thermosphere of Titan, Astrophys. J, vol.661, pp.199-202, 2007.

D. R. Linder, A. J. Coates, R. D. Woodliffe, C. Alsop, A. D. Johnstone et al., The Cassini CAPS Electron Spectrometer. Geophys. Monogr. -Am. Geophys. Union, vol.102, pp.257-262, 1998.

R. M. Lopes, M. J. Malaska, A. M. Schoenfeld, A. Solomonidou, S. P. Birch et al., A global geomorphologic map of Saturn's moon Titan, Nat. Astron, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-02377725

R. M. Lopes, M. J. Malaska, A. Solomonidou, A. Le-gall, M. A. Janssen et al., Nature, distribution, and origin of Titan's Undifferentiated Plains, Icarus, vol.270, pp.162-182, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01249189

R. M. Lopes, E. R. Stofan, R. Peckyno, J. Radebaugh, K. L. Mitchell et al., Distribution and interplay of geologic processes on Titan from Cassini radar data, Icarus, vol.205, pp.540-558, 2010.

J. J. López-moreno, G. J. Molina-cuberos, M. Hamelin, R. Grard, F. Simões et al., Structure of Titan's low altitude ionized layer from the Relaxation Probe onboard HUYGENS, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.35, p.22104, 2008.

R. D. Lorenz, E. P. Turtle, J. W. Barnes, M. G. Trainer, D. S. Adams et al., Dragonfly: A rotorcraft lander concept for scientific exploration at titan, Johns Hopkins APL Tech. Dig, vol.34, pp.374-387, 2018.

J. I. Lunine, Does Titan have an ocean? A review of current understanding of Titan's surface, Rev. Geophys, vol.31, pp.133-149, 1993.

J. Madeleine, F. Forget, E. Millour, L. Montabone, and M. J. Wolff, Revisiting the radiative impact of dust on Mars using the LMD Global Climate Model, J. Geophys. Res, vol.116, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01120102

B. A. Magee, J. H. Waite, K. E. Mandt, J. Westlake, J. Bell et al., INMS-derived composition of Titan's upper atmosphere: Analysis methods and model comparison, Planet. Space Sci, vol.57, pp.1895-1916, 2009.

W. C. Maguire, R. A. Hanel, D. E. Jennings, V. G. Kunde, and R. E. Samuelson, C3H8 and C3H4 in Titan's atmosphere, Nature, vol.292, pp.683-686, 1981.

A. Mahjoub, N. Carrasco, P. R. Dahoo, B. Fleury, T. Gautier et al., Effect of the synthesis temperature on the optical indices of organic materials produced by N2-CH4 RF plasma, Plasma Process. Polym, vol.11, pp.409-417, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00948948

A. Mahjoub, N. Carrasco, P. R. Dahoo, T. Gautier, C. Szopa et al., Influence of methane concentration on the optical indices of titan's aerosols analogues, Icarus, vol.221, pp.670-677, 2012.

J. Maillard, N. Carrasco, I. Schmitz-afonso, T. Gautier, and C. Afonso, Comparison of soluble and insoluble organic matter in analogues of Titan's aerosols, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.495, pp.185-191, 2018.

, Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer: Analysis methods and comparison of measured ion densities to photochemical model simulations, J. Geophys. Res. E Planets, vol.117

M. Mastrogiuseppe, V. Poggiali, A. Hayes, R. Lorenz, J. Lunine et al., The bathymetry of a Titan sea, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.41, pp.1432-1437, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00975219

M. Mastrogiuseppe, V. Poggiali, A. G. Hayes, J. I. Lunine, R. Seu et al., Deep and methane-rich lakes on Titan, Nat. Astron, vol.3, pp.535-542, 2019.

C. Mathé, T. Gautier, M. G. Trainer, and N. Carrasco, Detection Opportunity for Aromatic Signature in Titan's Aerosols in the 4.1 -5.3 ?m Range, Astrophys. J. Lett, vol.861, p.25, 2018.

C. P. Mckay, Elemental composition, solubility, and optical properties of Titan's organic haze, Planet. Space Sci, vol.44, pp.741-747, 1996.

C. P. Mckay, A. Coustenis, R. E. Samuelson, M. T. Lemmon, R. D. Lorenz et al., Physical properties of the organic aerosols and clouds on Titan, Planet. Space Sci, vol.49, pp.51-60, 2001.

M. Michael, S. N. Tripathi, P. Arya, A. Coates, A. Wellbrock et al., High-altitude charged aerosols in the atmosphere of Titan, Planet. Space Sci, vol.59, pp.880-885, 2011.

S. L. Miller, A production of amino acids under possible primitive earth conditions, Science, vol.117, pp.528-529, 1953.

G. J. Molina-cuberos, S. Cardnell, A. J. García-collado, O. Witasse, and J. J. López-moreno, Aerosols: The key to understanding Titan's lower ionosphere, Planet. Space Sci, vol.153, pp.157-162, 2018.

,

G. J. Molina-cuberos, H. Lammer, W. Stumptner, K. Schwingenschuh, H. O. Rucker et al., Ionospheric layer induced by meteoric ionization in Titan's atmosphere, Planet. Space Sci, vol.49, pp.133-134, 2001.

G. J. Molina-cuberos, J. J. López-moreno, R. Rodrigo, L. M. Lara, and K. O'brien, Ionization by cosmic rays of the atmosphere of Titan, Planet. Space Sci, vol.47, pp.56-58, 1999.

M. Morisson, C. Szopa, N. Carrasco, A. Buch, and T. Gautier, Titan's organic aerosols: Molecular composition and structure of laboratory analogues inferred from pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis, Icarus, vol.277, pp.442-454, 2016.

M. W. Morooka, J. Wahlund, L. Z. Hadid, A. I. Eriksson, N. J. Edberg et al., Saturn's Dusty Ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Sp. Phys, vol.124, pp.1679-1697, 2019.

J. Mouzay, C. Assadourian, N. Piétri, T. Chiavassa, and I. Couturier-tamburelli, New possible route of HC3N formation in Titan's atmosphere. Low Temp, Phys, vol.45, pp.701-709, 2019.

A. F. Nagy, A. J. Kliore, E. Marouf, R. French, M. Flasar et al., First results from the ionospheric radio occultations of Saturn by the Cassini spacecraft, J. Geophys. Res. Sp. Phys, vol.111, 2006.

A. F. Nagy, A. J. Kliore, M. Mendillo, S. Miller, L. Moore et al., Upper atmosphere and ionosphere of Saturn, Saturn from Cassini-Huygens, pp.181-201, 2009.

N. F. Ness, M. H. Acuna, K. W. Behannon, and F. M. Neubauer, The induced magnetosphere of Titan, J. Geophys. Res. Sp. Phys, vol.87, pp.1369-1381, 1982.

H. B. Niemann, S. K. Atreya, J. E. Demick, D. Gautier, J. A. Haberman et al., Composition of Titan's lower atmosphere and simple surface volatiles as, 2010.

P. Rannou, F. Hourdin, C. P. Mckay, and D. Luz, A coupled dynamics-microphysics model of Titan's atmosphere, Icarus, vol.170, pp.443-462, 2004.

R. Thompson, W. Henry, T. J. Schwartz, J. M. Khare, B. N. Sagan et al., Plasma discharge in N2 + CH4 at low pressures: Experimental results and applications to Titan, Icarus, vol.90, pp.90068-90073, 1991.

M. S. Richard, T. E. Cravens, C. Wylie, D. Webb, Q. Chediak et al., An empirical approach to modeling ion production rates in Titan's ionosphere II: Ion production rates on the nightside, J. Geophys. Res. Sp. Phys, vol.120, pp.1281-1298, 2015.

M. S. Richard, T. E. Cravens, C. Wylie, D. Webb, Q. Chediak et al., An empirical approach to modeling ion production rates in Titan's ionosphere I: Ion production rates on the dayside and globally, J. Geophys. Res. Sp. Phys, vol.120, pp.1264-1280, 2015.

S. Rodriguez, A. Garcia, A. Lucas, T. Appéré, A. Le-gall et al., Global mapping and characterization of Titan's dune fields with Cassini: Correlation between RADAR and VIMS observations, Icarus, vol.230, pp.168-179, 2014.

C. Sagan and B. N. Khare, Tholins: Organic chemistry of interstellar grains and gas, Nature, vol.277, pp.102-107, 1979.

C. Sagan and B. N. Khare, Long-Wavelength Ultraviolet Photoproduction of, Amino Acids on the Primitive Earth. Science, vol.173, pp.417-420, 1971.

V. Vuitton, P. Lavvas, R. V. Yelle, M. Galand, A. Wellbrock et al., Negative ion chemistry in Titan's upper atmosphere, Planet. Space Sci, vol.57, pp.1558-1572, 2009.

V. Vuitton, R. V. Yelle, and V. G. Anicich, The Nitrogen Chemistry of Titan's Upper Atmosphere Revealed, Astrophys. J, vol.647, pp.175-178, 2006.

V. Vuitton, R. V. Yelle, S. J. Klippenstein, S. M. Hörst, and P. Lavvas, Simulating the density of organic species in the atmosphere of Titan with a coupled ion-neutral photochemical model, Icarus, vol.324, pp.120-197, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02104659

J. E. Wahlund, M. André, A. I. Eriksson, M. Lundberg, M. W. Morooka et al., Detection of dusty plasma near the E-ring of Saturn, Planet. Space Sci, vol.57, pp.1795-1806, 2009.

J. E. Wahlund, R. Boström, G. Gustafsson, D. A. Gurnett, W. S. Kurth et al., Cassini measurements of cold plasma in the ionosphere of Titan, Science, vol.308, pp.986-989, 2005.

J. E. Wahlund, M. Galand, I. Müller-wodarg, J. Cui, R. V. Yelle et al., On the amount of heavy molecular ions in Titan's ionosphere, Planet. Space Sci, vol.57, pp.1857-1865, 2009.

J. H. Waite, W. S. Lewis, W. T. Kasprzak, V. G. Anicich, B. P. Block et al., The Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) Investigation, in: The Cassini-Huygens Mission, pp.113-231, 2004.

J. H. Waite, H. Niemann, R. V. Yelle, W. T. Kasprzak, T. E. Cravens et al., Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer results from the first flyby of Titan, Science, vol.308, pp.982-986, 2005.

J. H. Waite, D. T. Young, T. E. Cravens, A. J. Coates, F. J. Crary et al., Planetary science: The process of tholin formation in Titan's upper atmosphere, Science, vol.316, pp.870-875, 2007.

J. H. Waite, D. T. Young, J. H. Westlake, J. I. Lunine, C. P. Mckay et al., High-altitude production of titan's aerosols, in: Titan from Cassini-Huygens, pp.201-214, 2010.

G. Wattieaux, N. Carrasco, M. Henault, L. Boufendi, and G. Cernogora, Transient phenomena during dust formation in a N2-CH4 capacitively coupled plasma, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol, vol.24, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01101806

A. Wellbrock, A. J. Coates, G. H. Jones, G. R. Lewis, and J. H. Waite, Cassini CAPS-ELS observations of negative ions in Titan's ionosphere: Trends of density with altitude, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.40, pp.4481-4485, 2013.

A. G. Aberle, Overview on SiN surface passivation of crystalline silicon solar cells, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, vol.65, pp.239-248, 2001.

K. Achkasov, Study of negative ion surface production in cesium-free H2 and D2 plasmas: application to neutral beam injectors for ITER and DEMO, 2015.

G. Alcouffe, M. Cavarroc, G. Cernogora, F. Ouni, A. Jolly et al., Capacitively coupled plasma used to simulate Titan's atmospheric chemistry, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol, vol.19, 2010.

L. L. Alves, The IST-LISBON database on LXCat, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, p.12007, 2014.

L. L. Alves, L. Marques, C. D. Pintassilgo, G. Wattieaux, E. Es-sebbar et al., Capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharges in nitrogen at low pressures, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol, vol.21, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00716113

D. Barton, D. J. Heason, R. D. Short, and J. W. Bradley, The measurement and control of the ion energy distribution function at a surface in an RF plasma, Meas. Sci. Technol, vol.11, pp.1726-1731, 2000.

T. Body, S. Cousens, J. Kirby, and C. Corr, A volume-averaged model of nitrogen-hydrogen plasma chemistry to investigate ammonia production in a plasma-surface-interaction device, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion, vol.60, p.75011, 2018.

A. Bogaerts, E. Neyts, R. Gijbels, and J. Van-der-mullen, Gas Discharge Plasmas and Their Applications, Spectrochim. Acta Part B, vol.57, pp.609-658, 2002.

F. Z. Bouanis, C. Jama, M. Traisnel, and F. Bentiss, Study of corrosion resistance properties of nitrided carbon steel using radiofrequency N2/H2 cold plasma process, Corros. Sci, vol.52, pp.3180-3190, 2010.

I. N. Brovikova and E. G. Galiaskarov, Kinetic characteristics of production and loss of nitrogen atoms in N2 plasma, High Temp, vol.39, pp.809-814, 2001.

M. J. Burgdorf, G. S. Orton, T. Encrenaz, G. R. Davis, E. Lellouch et al., Far-infrared spectroscopy of the giant planets: Measurements of ammonia and phosphine at Jupiter and Saturn and the continuum of Neptune, Advances in Space Research, pp.2247-2250, 2004.

R. W. Carlson, K. H. Baines, M. S. Anderson, G. Filacchione, and A. A. Simon, Chromophores from photolyzed ammonia reacting with acetylene: Application to Jupiter's Great Red Spot, Icarus, vol.274, pp.106-115, 2016.

L. Godet, Development of pulsed plasma doping system for semiconductor processing : characterization of the plasma and its interaction with the materials, 2006.

D. M. Goebel, J. Bohdansky, R. W. Conn, Y. Hirooka, B. Labombard et al., Erosion of graphite by high flux hydrogen plasma bombardment, Nucl. Fusion, vol.28, 1041.

B. Gordiets, C. M. Ferreira, M. J. Pinheiro, and A. Ricard, Self-consistent kinetic model of low-pressure N2-H2 flowing discharges: I. Volume processes, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol, vol.7, pp.363-378, 1998.

B. Gordiets, C. M. Ferreira, M. J. Pinheiro, and A. Ricard, Self-consistent kinetic model of low-pressure N2-H2 flowing discharges: II. Surface processes and densities of N, H, NH3 species, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol, vol.7, pp.379-388, 1998.

G. Gottardi, N. Laidani, R. Bartali, V. Micheli, and M. Anderle, Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of a-C:H films in CH4-CO2 plasma: Gas composition and substrate biasing effects on the film structure and growth process, Thin Solid Films, vol.516, pp.3910-3918, 2008.

V. Guerra and J. Loureiro, Electron and heavy particle kinetics in a low-pressure nitrogen glow discharge, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol, vol.6, pp.361-372, 1997.

V. Guerra, P. A. Sá, and J. Loureiro, Kinetic modeling of low-pressure nitrogen discharges and post-discharges, EPJ Appl. Phys, vol.28, pp.125-152, 2004.

D. Han and S. Y. Moon, Rapid formation of transparent superhydrophobic film on glasses by He/CH4/C4F8 plasma deposition at atmospheric pressure, Plasma Process. Polym, vol.12, pp.172-179, 2015.

M. Haverlag, G. M. Kroesen, T. H. Bisschops, and F. J. De-hoog, Measurement of electron densities by a microwave cavity method in 13, MHz RF plasmas of Ar, CF4, C2F6, and CHF3. Plasma Chem. Plasma Process, vol.56, pp.357-370, 1991.

E. Herbst, The chemistry of interstellar space, Chem. Soc. Rev, vol.30, pp.168-176, 2001.

J. Hong, S. Pancheshnyi, E. Tam, J. J. Lowke, S. Prawer et al., Corrigendum: Kinetic modelling of NH3 production in N2-H2 non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasma catalysis, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys, vol.50, p.154005, 2017.

J. Hong, S. Pancheshnyi, E. Tam, J. J. Lowke, S. Prawer et al., Kinetic modelling of NH3 production in N2-H2 non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasma catalysis, J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys, vol.50, p.154005, 2017.

M. Hudis, Study of ion-nitriding, J. Appl. Phys, vol.44, pp.1489-1496, 1973.

N. Inagaki and J. Ohkubo, Plasma polymerization of hexafluoropropene/methane mixtures and composite membranes for gas separations, J. Memb. Sci, vol.27, pp.63-75, 1986.

L. M. Isola, B. J. Gómez, and V. Guerra, Determination of the electron temperature and density in the negative glow of a nitrogen pulsed discharge using optical emission spectroscopy, J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys, vol.43, p.15202, 2010.

T. C. Keane, Mechanism for the Coupled Photochemistry of Ammonia and Acetylene: Implications for Giant Planets, Comets and Interstellar Organic Synthesis, Orig. Life Evol. Biosph, vol.47, pp.223-248, 2017.

S. Kechkar, S. K. Babu, P. Swift, C. Gaman, S. Daniels et al., Investigation of absolute atomic fluorine density in a capacitively coupled SF6/O2/Ar and SF6/Ar discharge, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol, vol.23, p.65029, 2014.

B. L. Klarenaar, R. Engeln, . Van-den, D. C. Bekerom, M. C. Van-de-sanden et al., Time evolution of vibrational temperatures in a CO2 glow discharge measured with infrared absorption spectroscopy, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol, vol.26, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01898526

Y. Kondo, K. Ishikawa, T. Hayashi, M. Sekine, and M. Hori, Electron impact ionization of perfluoro-methylvinyl-ether C3F6O, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol, vol.27, 2018.

S. Kumar, M. J. Baldwin, M. P. Fewell, S. C. Haydon, K. T. Short et al., The effect of hydrogen on the growth of the nitrided layer in r.f.-plasma-nitrided austenitic stainless steel AISI 316, Surf. Coatings Technol, vol.123, pp.29-35, 2000.

P. P. Lavvas, A. Coustenis, and I. M. Vardavas, Coupling photochemistry with haze formation in Titan's atmosphere, Part II: Results and validation with Cassini/Huygens data, Planet. Space Sci, vol.56, pp.67-99, 2008.

S. A. Lawton and A. V. Phelps, Excitation of the b 1 ? + g state of O2 by low energy electrons, J. Chem. Phys, vol.69, p.1055, 1978.

A. Leyland, K. S. Fancey, A. S. James, and A. Matthews, Enhanced plasma nitriding at low pressures: A comparative study of d.c. and r.f. techniques. Surf. Coatings Technol, vol.41, pp.295-304, 1990.

M. A. Lieberman and A. J. Lichtenberg, Principles of Plasma Discharges and Materials Processing: Second Edition, Principles of Plasma Discharges and Materials Processing: Second Edition, 2005.

R. G. Livesey, Method for calculation of gas flow in the whole pressure regime through ducts of any length, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Vacuum, Surfaces, Film, vol.19, pp.1674-1678, 2001.

D. V. Lopaev, A. V. Volynets, S. M. Zyryanov, A. I. Zotovich, and A. T. Rakhimov, Actinometry of O, N and F atoms, J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys, vol.50, p.75202, 2017.

J. J. López-moreno, G. J. Molina-cuberos, M. Hamelin, R. Grard, F. Simões et al., Structure of Titan's low altitude ionized layer from the Relaxation Probe onboard HUYGENS, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.35, p.22104, 2008.

J. Loureiro and A. Ricard, Electron and vibrational kinetics in an N2-H2 glow discharge with application to surface processes, J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys, vol.26, pp.163-176, 1993.

B. A. Magee, J. H. Waite, K. E. Mandt, J. Westlake, J. Bell et al., INMS-derived composition of Titan's upper atmosphere: Analysis methods and model comparison, Planet. Space Sci, vol.57, pp.1895-1916, 2009.

T. Majeed, J. H. Waite, S. W. Bougher, R. V. Yelle, G. R. Gladstone et al., The ionospheres-thermospheres of the giant planets, Adv. Sp. Res, vol.33, pp.197-211, 2004.

,

L. Marques, J. Jolly, and L. L. Alves, Capacitively coupled radio-frequency hydrogen discharges: The role of kinetics, J. Appl. Phys, vol.102, p.63305, 2007.

B. J. Mccall and T. Oka, H3+, An ion with many talents, Science, vol.287, pp.1941-1942, 2000.

I. Méndez, F. J. Gordillo-vázquez, V. J. Herrero, and I. Tanarro, Atom and Ion Chemistry in Low Pressure Hydrogen DC Plasmas, J. Phys. Chem. A, vol.110, pp.6060-6066, 2006.

A. Migliorini, B. M. Dinelli, M. L. Moriconi, F. Altieri, A. Adriani et al., H 3+ characteristics in the Jupiter atmosphere as observed at limb with Juno/JIRAM, Icarus, vol.329, pp.132-139, 2019.

D. B. Milligan, P. F. Wilson, C. G. Freeman, M. Mcewan, and M. J. , Dissociative proton transfer reactions of H3+, N2H+, and H3O+ with acyclic, cyclic, and aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogen compounds, and astrochemical implications, Meot-Ner (Mautner), vol.106, pp.9745-9755, 2002.

H. Nagai, S. Takashima, M. Hiramatsu, M. Hori, and T. Goto, Behavior of atomic radicals and their effects on organic low dielectric constant film etching in high density N2/H2and N2/NH3plasmas, J. Appl. Phys, vol.91, pp.2615-2621, 2002.

J. O'hanlon, A User's Guide to Vacuum Technology, 2003.

M. Oberkofler, D. Alegre, F. Aumayr, S. Brezinsek, T. Dittmar et al., Plasma-wall interactions with nitrogen seeding in all-metal fusion devices: Formation of nitrides and ammonia, Fusion Eng. Des, pp.1371-1374, 2015.

T. Oka, Interstellar H3+, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A, vol.103, pp.12235-12242, 2006.

S. Petrie and D. K. Bohme, Ions in space, Mass Spectrom. Rev, 2007.

R. B. Piejak, V. A. Godyak, R. Garner, B. M. Alexandrovich, and N. Sternberg, The hairpin resonator: A plasma density measuring technique revisited, J. Appl. Phys, vol.95, pp.3785-3791, 2004.

C. D. Pintassilgo and V. Guerra, Modelling of the temporal evolution of the gas temperature in N2 discharges, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol, vol.26, 2017.

J. Pulpytel, F. Arefi-khonsari, and W. Morscheidt, Threshold ionization mass spectrometry study of singlet molecular oxygen in the deposition of SnO2 by PACVD, J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys, vol.38, pp.1390-1395, 2005.

Y. P. Raizer, Gas Discharge Physics, 1991.

D. Rapp and P. Englander-golden, Total cross sections for lonization and attachment in gases by electron impact. I. Positive ionization, J. Chem. Phys, vol.43, pp.1464-1479, 1965.

J. Roth and C. Garcia-rosales, Analytic description of the chemical erosion of graphite by hydrogen ions, Nucl. Fusion, vol.36, p.1647, 1996.

A. Salabas, L. Marques, J. Jolly, G. Gousset, and L. L. Alves, Systematic characterization of low-pressure capacitively coupled hydrogen discharges, J. Appl. Phys, vol.95, pp.4605-4620, 2004.

,

B. L. Sands, N. S. Siefert, and B. N. Ganguly, Design and measurement considerations of hairpin resonator probes for determining electron number density in collisional plasmas, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol, vol.16, 2007.

K. Sekine, Y. Saito, M. Hirayama, and T. Ohmi, Silicon nitride film growth for advanced gate dielectric at low temperature employing high-density and low-energy ion bombardment, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Vacuum, Surfaces, Film, vol.17, pp.3129-3133, 1999.

J. Shah, W. Wang, A. Bogaerts, and M. L. Carreon, Ammonia Synthesis by Radio Frequency Plasma Catalysis: Revealing the Underlying Mechanisms, ACS Appl. Energy Mater, vol.1, pp.4824-4839, 2018.

M. M. Shahin, Mass-spectrometric studies of corona discharges in air at atmospheric pressures, J. Chem. Phys, vol.45, pp.2600-2605, 1966.

J. A. Shirley and R. J. Hall, Vibrational excitation in H2 and D2 electric discharges, J. Chem. Phys, vol.67, pp.2419-2421, 1977.

H. Singh, J. W. Coburn, and D. B. Graves, Mass spectrometric detection of reactive neutral species: Beam-tobackground ratio, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Vacuum, Surfaces, Film, vol.17, pp.2447-2455, 1999.

H. S. Sinha, K. I. Oyama, and S. Watanabe, Detection of long-living neutral hydrated clusters in laboratory simulation of ionospheric D region plasma, J. Geophys. Res. Sp. Phys, vol.118, pp.583-589, 2013.

H. S. Sinha, Y. Tokuyama, K. I. Oyama, and S. Watanabe, Production and detection of hydrated cluster ions in laboratory plasma mimicking ionospheric D region, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.31, 2004.

M. Sode, W. Jacob, T. Schwarz-selinger, and H. Kersten, Measurement and modeling of neutral, radical, and ion densities in H2-N2-Ar plasmas, J. Appl. Phys, vol.117, p.83303, 2015.

M. Sode, T. Schwarz-selinger, and W. Jacob, Quantitative determination of mass-resolved ion densities in H2-Ar inductively coupled radio frequency plasmas, J. Appl. Phys, vol.113, p.93304, 2013.

C. Szopa, G. Cernogora, L. Boufendi, J. J. Correia, and P. Coll, PAMPRE: A dusty plasma experiment for Titan's tholins production and study, Planet. Space Sci, vol.54, pp.394-404, 2006.

F. L. Tabarés, D. Tafalla, I. Tanarro, V. J. Herrero, A. Islyaikin et al., Suppression of hydrogenated carbon film deposition by scavenger techniques and their application to the tritium inventory control of fusion devices, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion, vol.44, pp.37-42, 2002.

K. Tachibana and A. V. Phelps, Excitation of the 1s5 and 1s4 levels of neon by low-energy electrons, Phys. Rev. A, vol.36, pp.999-1007, 1987.

I. Tanarro, V. J. Herrero, A. M. Islyaikin, I. Méndez, F. L. Tabare et al., Ion chemistry in cold plasmas of H2 with CH4 and N2, J. Phys. Chem. A, vol.111, pp.9003-9012, 2007.

E. Tatarova, F. M. Dias, B. Gordiets, and C. M. Ferreira, Molecular dissociation in N2-H2 microwave discharges, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol, 2005.

J. C. Thomaz, J. Amorim, and C. F. Souza, Validity of actinometry to measure N and H atom concentration in N2-H2 direct current glow discharges, J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys, vol.32, pp.3208-3214, 1999.

M. Touvelle, J. L. Licea, and M. Venugopalan, Plasma chemical synthesis. II. Effect of wall surface on the synthesis of ammonia, Plasma Chem. Plasma Process, vol.7, pp.101-108, 1987.

V. Vuitton, R. V. Yelle, S. J. Klippenstein, S. M. Hörst, and P. Lavvas, Simulating the density of organic species in the atmosphere of Titan with a coupled ion-neutral photochemical model, Icarus, vol.324, pp.120-197, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02104659

S. G. Walton, R. F. Fernsler, and D. Leonhardt, Measurement of ion energy distributions using a combined energy and mass analyzer, Rev. Sci. Instrum, vol.78, p.83503, 2007.

H. Wang, J. Geng, X. Chen, W. X. Pan, and A. B. Murphy, Modeling Study on the Flow, Heat Transfer and Energy Conversion Characteristics of Low-Power Arc-Heated Hydrogen/Nitrogen Thrusters, Plasma Chem. Plasma Process, vol.30, pp.707-731, 2010.

H. Watanabe, K. Katoh, and S. Imagi, Properties of silicon nitride films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition of SiH4-N2 mixtures, Thin Solid Films, vol.136, pp.77-83, 1986.

G. Wattieaux, N. Carrasco, M. Henault, L. Boufendi, and G. Cernogora, Transient phenomena during dust formation in a N2-CH4 capacitively coupled plasma, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol, vol.24, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01101806

M. Womack, L. M. Ziurys, and S. Wyckoff, A survey of N2H + in dense clouds -Implications for interstellar nitrogen and ion-molecule chemistry, Astrophys. J, vol.387, 1992.

Y. A. Abdu, F. C. Hawthorne, and M. E. Varela, Infrared Spectroscopy of Carbonaceous-chondrite Inclusions in the Kapoeta Meteorite: Discovery of Nanodiamonds with New Spectral Features and Astrophysical Implications, Astrophys. J, vol.856, 2018.

K. Ågren, J. Wahlund, P. Garnier, R. Modolo, J. Cui et al., On the ionospheric structure of Titan, Planet. Space Sci, vol.57, pp.1821-1827, 2009.

F. Azzolina-jury and F. Thibault-starzyk, Mechanism of Low Pressure Plasma-Assisted CO2 Hydrogenation Over Ni-USY by Microsecond Time-resolved FTIR Spectroscopy, Top. Catal, vol.60, pp.1709-1721, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01831389

N. Balucani, Elementary reactions of N atoms with hydrocarbons: first steps towards the formation of prebiotic N-containing molecules in planetary atmospheres, Chem. Soc. Rev, pp.5473-5483, 2012.

N. Balucani, F. Leonori, R. Petrucci, M. Stazi, D. Skouteris et al., Formation of nitriles and imines in the atmosphere of Titan: Combined crossed-beam and theoretical studies on the reaction dynamics of excited nitrogen atoms N(2D) with ethane, Faraday Discuss, vol.147, pp.189-216, 2010.

N. Balucani, D. Skouteris, F. Leonori, M. Hamberg, W. D. Geppert et al., Combined Crossed Beam and Theoretical Studies of the N(2D) + C2H4. Reaction and Implications for Atmospheric Models of Titan, J. Phys. Chem. A, vol.116, pp.10467-10479, 2012.

A. Bogaerts, E. Neyts, R. Gijbels, and J. Van-der-mullen, Gas Discharge Plasmas and Their Applications, Spectrochim. Acta Part B, vol.57, pp.609-658, 2002.

J. Y. Bonnet, E. Quirico, A. Buch, R. Thissen, C. Szopa et al., Formation of analogs of cometary nitrogen-rich refractory organics from thermal degradation of tholin and HCN polymer, Icarus, vol.250, pp.53-63, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01088866

E. Carrasco, I. Tanarro, V. J. Herrero, and J. Cernicharo, Proton transfer chains in cold plasmas of H2 with small amounts of N2. The prevalence of NH4 +, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys, vol.15, pp.1699-1706, 2013.

N. Carrasco, F. Jomard, J. Vigneron, A. Etcheberry, and G. Cernogora, Laboratory analogues simulating Titan's atmospheric aerosols: Compared chemical compositions of grains and thin films, Planet. Space Sci, vol.128, pp.52-57, 2016.

N. Carrasco, I. Schmitz-afonso, J. Y. Bonnet, E. Quirico, R. Thissen et al., Chemical characterization of titan's tholins: Solubility, morphology and molecular structure revisited, J. Phys. Chem. A, vol.113, pp.11195-11203, 2009.

N. Carrasco, S. Tigrine, L. Gavilan, L. Nahon, and M. S. Gudipati, The evolution of Titan's high-altitude aerosols under ultraviolet irradiation, Nat. Astron, vol.2, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01767663

J. Cui, R. V. Yelle, V. Vuitton, J. H. Waite, W. T. Kasprzak et al., Analysis of Titan's neutral upper atmosphere from Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer measurements, Icarus, vol.200, pp.581-615, 2009.

G. Danger, F. R. Orthous-daunay, P. De-marcellus, P. Modica, V. Vuitton et al., Characterization of laboratory analogs of interstellar/cometary organic residues using very high resolution mass spectrometry, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol.118, pp.184-201, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01457951

E. Dartois, G. M. Muñoz-caro, D. Deboffle, G. Montagnac, and L. Hendecourt, Ultraviolet photoproduction -231 -of ISM dust, Astron. Astrophys, vol.432, pp.895-908, 2005.

P. De-marcellus, A. Fresneau, R. Brunetto, G. Danger, F. Duvernay et al., Photo and thermochemical evolution of astrophysical ice analogues as a source for soluble and insoluble organic materials in Solar system minor bodies, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc, vol.464, pp.114-120, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01930506

Z. Dionnet, A. Aleon-toppani, D. Baklouti, F. Borondics, F. Brisset et al., Organic and mineralogic heterogeneity of the Paris meteorite followed by FTIR hyperspectral imaging, Meteorit. Planet. Sci, vol.16, pp.1-16, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02405177

D. Dubois, N. Carrasco, L. Jovanovic, L. Vettier, T. Gautier et al., Positive ion chemistry in an N2-CH4 plasma discharge: Key precursors to the growth of Titan tholins, Icarus, vol.338, 2020.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-02305252

N. Fox-lyon, G. S. Oehrlein, N. Ning, and D. B. Graves, Hydrogenation and surface density changes in hydrocarbon films during erosion using Ar/H2 plasmas, Journal of Applied Physics, p.104314, 2011.

N. Fray, A. Bardyn, H. Cottin, K. Altwegg, D. Baklouti et al., High-molecular-weight organic matter in the particles of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Nature, vol.538, pp.72-74, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01362335

T. Gautier, N. Carrasco, A. Mahjoub, S. Vinatier, A. Giuliani et al., Mid-and far-infrared absorption spectroscopy of Titan's aerosols analogues, Icarus, vol.221, pp.320-327, 2012.

G. Gronoff, J. Lilensten, L. Desorgher, and E. Flückiger, Ionization processes in the atmosphere of Titan -I. Ionization in the whole atmosphere, Astron. Astrophys, vol.506, pp.955-964, 2009.

V. Guerra, P. A. Sá, and J. Loureiro, Kinetic modeling of low-pressure nitrogen discharges and post-discharges, EPJ Appl. Phys, vol.28, pp.125-152, 2004.

E. Hadamcik, J. B. Renard, G. Alcouffe, G. Cernogora, A. C. Levasseur-regourd et al., Laboratory lightscattering measurements with Titan's aerosols analogues produced by a dusty plasma, Planet. Space Sci, vol.57, pp.1631-1641, 2009.

C. He and M. A. Smith, Identification of nitrogenous organic species in Titan aerosols analogs: Implication for prebiotic chemistry on Titan and early Earth, Icarus, vol.238, pp.86-92, 2014.

,

J. He, A. Buch, N. Carrasco, and C. Szopa, Thermal degradation of organics for pyrolysis in space: Titan's atmospheric aerosol case study, Icarus, vol.248, pp.205-212, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01075658

B. L. Henderson and M. S. Gudipati, Direct detection of complex organic products in ultraviolet (Ly?) and electron-irradiated astrophysical and cometary ice analogs using two-step laser ablation and ionization mass spectrometry, Astrophys. J, vol.800, 2015.

C. D. Herd, A. Blinova, D. N. Simkus, Y. Huang, R. Tarozo et al., Origin and evolution of prebiotic organic matter as inferred from the Tagish Lake meteorite, Science, vol.332, pp.1304-1307, 2011.

J. Hong, F. Truica-marasescu, L. Martinu, and M. R. Wertheimer, An Investigation of Plasma-Polymer Interactions by Mass Spectrometry. Plasmas Polym, vol.7, pp.245-260, 2002.

,

J. Hong and G. Turban, Etching process of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) thin films in a dual ECRr.f. nitrogen plasma, Diam. Relat. Mater, vol.8, pp.337-346, 1999.

H. Imanaka, B. N. Khare, J. E. Elsila, E. L. Bakes, C. P. Mckay et al., Laboratory experiments of Titan tholin formed in cold plasma at various pressures: Implications for nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compounds in Titan haze, Icarus, vol.168, pp.344-366, 2004.

K. Ishikawa, Y. Yamaoka, M. Nakamura, Y. Yamazaki, S. Yamasaki et al., Surface reactions during etching of organic low-k films by plasmas of N2 and H2, J. Appl. Phys, vol.99, p.83305, 2006.

W. Jacob, C. Hopf, and M. Schlüter, Chemical sputtering of carbon materials due to combined bombardment by ions and atomic hydrogen, Phys. Scr. T, vol.124, pp.32-36, 2006.

Z. Jia and A. Rousseau, Sorbent track: Quantitative monitoring of adsorbed VOCs under in-situ plasma exposure, Sci. Rep, vol.6, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01368237

G. Junk and H. J. Svec, The presence of N3+ and N4+ in the mass spectra of molecular nitrogen, J. Am. Chem. Soc, 1958.

S. J. Kim, A. Jung, C. K. Sim, R. Courtin, A. Bellucci et al., Retrieval and tentative indentification of the 3 ?m spectral feature in Titans haze, Planet. Space Sci, vol.59, pp.699-704, 2011.

M. Kral, A. Ogino, K. Narushima, N. Inagaki, M. Yamashita et al., Low-Temperature Nitrogen Introduction onto Polyurethane Surface Using Surface-Wave Excited N2/H2 Plasma, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys, vol.46, pp.7470-7474, 2007.

M. Kuga, B. Marty, Y. Marrocchi, and L. Tissandier, Synthesis of refractory organic matter in the ionized gas phase of the solar nebula, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A, vol.112, pp.7129-7163, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01346065

K. Kurihara, A. Egami, and M. Nakamura, Study of organic polymer thin-film etching by plasma beam irradiation, J. Appl. Phys, vol.98, p.84907, 2005.

K. Kurihara, K. Karahashi, A. Egami, and M. Nakamura, Measurement of desorbed products during organic polymer thin film etching by plasma beam irradiation, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Vacuum, Surfaces, Film, vol.24, pp.2217-2222, 2006.

B. Laurent, M. Roskosz, L. Remusat, H. Leroux, H. Vezin et al., Isotopic and structural signature of experimentally irradiated organic matter, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol.142, pp.522-534, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01086423

P. Lavvas, M. Galand, R. V. Yelle, A. N. Heays, B. R. Lewis et al., Energy deposition and primary chemical products in Titan's upper atmosphere, Icarus, vol.213, pp.233-251, 2011.

P. Lavvas, M. Sander, M. Kraft, and H. Imanaka, Surface chemistry and particle shape: Processes for the evolution of aerosols in Titan's atmosphere, Astrophys. J, vol.728, 2011.

P. Lavvas, R. V. Yelle, T. Koskinen, A. Bazin, V. Vuitton et al., Aerosol growth in Titan's ionosphere, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A, vol.110, pp.2729-2734, 2013.

S. É. Lebonnois, E. L. Bakes, and C. P. Mckay, Atomic and molecular hydrogen budget in Titan's atmosphere, Icarus, vol.161, pp.39-47, 2003.

M. López-puertas, B. M. Dinelli, A. Adriani, B. Funke, M. García-comas et al., Large abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Titan's upper -233 -atmosphere, Astrophys. J, vol.770, 2013.

J. Loureiro and A. Ricard, Electron and vibrational kinetics in an N2-H2 glow discharge with application to surface processes, J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys, vol.26, pp.163-176, 1993.

B. A. Magee, J. H. Waite, K. E. Mandt, J. Westlake, J. Bell et al., INMS-derived composition of Titan's upper atmosphere: Analysis methods and model comparison, Planet. Space Sci, vol.57, pp.1895-1916, 2009.

T. Majeed, J. C. Mcconnell, and R. V. Yelle, Vibrationally excited H2 in the outer planets thermosphere: Fluorescence in the Lyman and Werner bands, Planet. Space Sci, vol.39, pp.1591-1606, 1991.

T. Majeed, J. H. Waite, S. W. Bougher, R. V. Yelle, G. R. Gladstone et al., The ionospheres-thermospheres of the giant planets, Adv. Sp. Res, vol.33, pp.197-211, 2004.

,

K. E. Mandt, D. A. Gell, M. Perry, J. Hunter-waite, F. A. Crary et al., Ion densities and composition of Titan's upper atmosphere derived from the Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer: Analysis methods and comparison of measured ion densities to photochemical model simulations, J. Geophys. Res. E Planets, vol.117, 2012.

M. Gholipour, A. Rahemi, N. Allahyari, S. Ghareshabani, and E. , Hybrid Plasma-Catalytic Oxidation of VOCs with NiMn/Montmorillonite: Plasma and Catalyst Considerations, Top. Catal, vol.60, pp.934-943, 2017.

C. S. Moon, K. Takeda, M. Sekine, Y. Setsuhara, M. Shiratani et al., Etching characteristics of organic low-k films interpreted by internal parameters employing a combinatorial plasma process in an inductively coupled H2/N2 plasma, J. Appl. Phys, vol.107, 2010.

Y. Morikawa, T. Hayashi, and T. Uchida, Etching characteristics of organic polymers in the magnetic neutral loop discharge plasma, Japanese J. Appl. Physics, Part 1 Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap, vol.42, pp.1441-1444, 2003.

M. Morisson, C. Szopa, N. Carrasco, A. Buch, and T. Gautier, Titan's organic aerosols: Molecular composition and structure of laboratory analogues inferred from pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis, Icarus, vol.277, pp.442-454, 2016.

L. Moroz, G. Baratta, G. Strazzulla, L. Starukhina, E. Dotto et al., Optical alteration of complex organics induced by ion irradiation: 1. Laboratory experiments suggest unusual space weathering trend, Icarus, vol.170, pp.214-228, 2004.

N. Mutsukura and K. I. Akita, Infrared absorption spectroscopy measurements of amorphous CNxfilms prepared in CH4/N2r.f. discharge, Thin Solid Films, vol.349, pp.237-237, 1999.

H. Nagai, M. Hiramatsu, M. Hori, and T. Goto, Plasma induced subsurface reactions for anisotropic etching of organic low dielectric film employing N2 and H2 gas chemistry, Japanese J. Appl. Physics, 2003.

H. Nagai, S. Takashima, M. Hiramatsu, M. Hori, and T. Goto, Behavior of atomic radicals and their effects on organic low dielectric constant film etching in high density N2/H2and N2/NH3plasmas, J. Appl. Phys, vol.91, pp.2615-2621, 2002.

M. Nuevo, S. N. Milam, S. A. Sandford, B. T. De-gregorio, G. D. Cody et al., XANES analysis of organic residues produced from the UV irradiation of astrophysical ice analogs, Adv. Sp. Res, vol.48, pp.1126-1135, 2011.

K. I. Öberg, Photochemistry and Astrochemistry: Photochemical Pathways to Interstellar Complex Organic Molecules, Chem. Rev, 2016.

P. Pernot, N. Carrasco, R. Thissen, and I. Schmitz-afonso, Tholinomics-Chemical Analysis of Nitrogen-Rich Polymers, Anal. Chem, vol.82, pp.1371-1380, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00464271

C. D. Pintassilgo and V. Guerra, Modelling of the temporal evolution of the gas temperature in N2 discharges, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol, vol.26, 2017.

E. Quirico, G. Montagnac, V. Lees, P. F. Mcmillan, C. Szopa et al., New experimental constraints on the composition and structure of tholins, Icarus, vol.198, pp.218-231, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00333083

-. Sciamma, E. Brien, N. Carrasco, C. Szopa, A. Buch et al., Titan's atmosphere: An optimal gas mixture for aerosol production?, Icarus, vol.209, pp.704-714, 2010.

-. Sciamma, E. Brien, K. T. Upton, and F. Salama, The Titan Haze Simulation (THS) experiment on COSmIC. Part II. Ex-situ analysis of aerosols produced at low temperature, Icarus, vol.289, pp.214-226, 2017.

Y. Sekine, H. Imanaka, T. Matsui, B. N. Khare, E. L. Bakes et al., The role of organic haze in Titan's atmospheric chemistry. I. Laboratory investigation on heterogeneous reaction of atomic hydrogen with Titan tholin, Icarus, vol.194, pp.186-200, 2008.

Y. Sekine, S. Lebonnois, H. Imanaka, T. Matsui, E. L. Bakes et al., The role of organic haze in Titan's atmospheric chemistry. II. Effect of heterogeneous reaction to the hydrogen budget and chemical composition of the atmosphere, Icarus, vol.194, pp.201-211, 2008.

,

M. K. Sharma, B. K. Saikia, A. Phukan, and B. Ganguli, Plasma nitriding of austenitic stainless steel in N2 and N2-H2 dc pulsed discharge, Surf. Coatings Technol, vol.201, pp.2407-2413, 2006.

,

O. Shebanits, J. Wahlund, N. J. Edberg, F. J. Crary, A. Wellbrock et al., Ion and aerosol precursor densities in Titan's ionosphere: A multi-instrument case study, J. Geophys. Res. Sp. Phys, vol.121, pp.75-85, 2016.

. Socrates, Infrared and Raman characteristic group frequencies, Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 2004.

M. Sode, W. Jacob, T. Schwarz-selinger, and H. Kersten, Measurement and modeling of neutral, radical, and ion densities in H2-N2-Ar plasmas, J. Appl. Phys, vol.117, p.83303, 2015.

I. Tanarro, V. J. Herrero, A. M. Islyaikin, I. Méndez, F. L. Tabare et al., Ion chemistry in cold plasmas of H2 with CH4 and N2, J. Phys. Chem. A, vol.111, pp.9003-9012, 2007.

F. Truica-marasescu and M. R. Wertheimer, Nitrogen-rich plasma-polymer films for biomedical applications, Plasma Process. Polym, vol.5, pp.44-57, 2008.

S. Uchida, S. Takashima, M. Hori, M. Fukasawa, K. Ohshima et al., Evaluation of property changes due to radiation, radicals, and ions on organic low-k films in H2/N2 plasma etching, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys, vol.47, pp.3621-3624, 2008.

K. Van-laer, S. Tinck, V. Samara, J. F. De-marneffe, and A. Bogaerts, Etching of low-k materials for microelectronics applications by means of a N2/H2 plasma : modeling and experimental investigation, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol, vol.22, 2013.

V. S. Voitsenya, S. Masuzaki, O. Motojima, A. Sagara, and W. Jacob, Impact of N2+ H2 mixture plasma on carbon-containing film, Probl. At. Sci. Technol. Ser. Plasma Physics, vol.6, p.141, 2006.

V. Vuitton, R. V. Yelle, S. J. Klippenstein, S. M. Hörst, and P. Lavvas, Simulating the density of organic species in the atmosphere of Titan with a coupled ion-neutral photochemical model, Icarus, vol.324, pp.120-197, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02104659

J. H. Waite, H. Niemann, R. V. Yelle, W. T. Kasprzak, T. E. Cravens et al., Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer results from the first flyby of Titan, Science, vol.308, pp.982-986, 2005.

J. H. Waite, D. T. Young, T. E. Cravens, A. J. Coates, F. J. Crary et al., Planetary science: The process of tholin formation in Titan's upper atmosphere, Science, vol.316, pp.870-875, 2007.

M. R. Wertheimer, A. C. Fozza, and A. Holländer, Industrial processing of polymers by low-pressure plasmas: the role of VUV radiation, Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B Beam Interact. with Mater. Atoms, vol.151, pp.73-80, 1999.

J. H. Westlake, J. H. Waite, K. E. Mandt, N. Carrasco, J. M. Bell et al., Titan's ionospheric composition and structure: Photochemical modeling of Cassini INMS data, J. Geophys. Res. Sp. PhysicsGR Sp. Phys, vol.117, pp.1-21, 2012.

R. V. Yelle, V. Vuitton, P. Lavvas, S. J. Klippenstein, M. A. Smith et al., Formation of NH3 and CH2NH in Titan's upper atmosphere, Faraday Discuss, vol.147, pp.31-49, 2010.

K. Ågren, J. Wahlund, P. Garnier, R. Modolo, J. Cui et al., On the ionospheric structure of Titan, Planet. Space Sci, vol.57, pp.1821-1827, 2009.

K. Ågren, J. E. Wahlund, R. Modolo, D. Lummerzheim, M. Galand et al., On magnetospheric electron impact ionisation and dynamics in Titan's ram-side and polar ionosphere -a Cassini case study, Ann. Geophys, vol.25, pp.2359-2369, 2007.

R. T. Bettinger and E. H. Walker, Relationship for Plasma Sheaths about Langmuir Probes, Phys. Fluids, vol.748, pp.748-751, 1965.

M. K. Bird, R. Dutta-roy, S. W. Asmar, and T. A. Rebold, Detection of titan's ionosphere from voyager 1 radio occultation observations, Icarus, vol.130, pp.426-436, 1997.

A. J. Coates, F. J. Crary, D. T. Young, K. Szego, C. S. Arridge et al., Ionospheric electrons in Titan's tail: Plasma structure during the Cassini T9 encounter, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.34, pp.24-29, 2007.

T. E. Cravens, I. P. Robertson, S. A. Ledvina, D. Mitchell, S. M. Krimigis et al., Energetic ion precipitation at Titan, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.35, p.3103, 2008.

C. M. Cully, R. E. Ergun, and A. I. Eriksson, Electrostatic structure around spacecraft in tenuous plasmas, J. Geophys. Res. Sp. Phys, vol.112, 2007.

M. J. Druyvesteyn, Der niedervoltbogen, Zeitschrift für Phys, vol.64, pp.781-798, 1930.

N. J. Edberg, D. J. Andrews, O. Shebanits, K. Ågren, J. E. Wahlund et al., Solar cycle modulation of Titan's ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Sp. Phys, vol.118, pp.5255-5264, 2013.

N. J. Edberg, J. E. Wahlund, K. Ågren, M. W. Morooka, R. Modolo et al., Electron density and temperature measurements in the cold plasma environment of Titan: Implications for atmospheric escape, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.37, p.20105, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00509063

W. M. Farrell, W. S. Kurth, D. A. Gurnett, R. E. Johnson, M. L. Kaiser et al., Electron density dropout near Enceladus in the context of water-vapor and water-ice, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.36, p.10203, 2009.

M. Galand, A. J. Coates, T. E. Cravens, and J. Wahlund, Titan's Ionosphere, pp.296-361, 2014.

M. Galand, R. Yelle, J. Cui, J. Wahlund, V. Vuitton et al., Ionization sources in Titan's deep ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Sp. Phys, vol.115, 2010.

M. Galand, R. V. Yelle, A. J. Coates, H. Backes, and J. Wahlund, Electron temperature of Titan's sunlit ionosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.33, p.21101, 2006.

R. J. Grard, Properties of the satellite photoelectron sheath derived from photoemission laboratory measurements, J. Geophys. Res, vol.78, pp.2885-2906, 1973.

D. A. Gurnett, W. S. Kurth, D. L. Kirchner, G. B. Hospodarsky, T. F. Averkamp et al., The Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation, pp.395-463, 2004.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00151770

D. A. Gurnett, W. S. Kurth, and F. L. Scarf, Plasma waves near Saturn: Initial results from Voyager 1. Science -290 -212, pp.235-239, 1981.

K. S. Jacobsen, J. E. Wahlund, and A. Pedersen, Cassini Langmuir probe measurements in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn, Planet. Space Sci, 2009.

M. A. Lieberman and A. J. Lichtenberg, Principles of Plasma Discharges and Materials Processing: Second Edition, Principles of Plasma Discharges and Materials Processing: Second Edition, 2005.

H. M. Mott-smith and I. Langmuir, The theory of collectors in gaseous discharges, Phys. Rev, vol.28, pp.727-763, 1926.

V. Mukundan and A. Bhardwaj, Dayside ionosphere of Titan: Impact on calculated plasma densities due to variations in the model parameters, Icarus, vol.299, pp.222-239, 2018.

M. S. Richard, T. E. Cravens, I. P. Robertson, J. H. Waite, J. Wahlund et al., Energetics of Titan's ionosphere: Model comparisons with Cassini data, J. Geophys. Res. Sp. Phys, vol.116, 2011.

F. L. Scarf, D. A. Gurnett, W. S. Kurth, and R. L. Poynter, Voyager 2 plasma wave observations at Saturn, Science, vol.215, pp.587-594, 1982.

O. Shebanits, Titan's ionosphere and dust, 2017.

O. Shebanits, E. Vigren, J. Wahlund, N. J. Edberg, J. Cui et al., Photoionization Modeling of Titan's Dayside Ionosphere, Astrophys. J, vol.850, 2017.

O. Shebanits, E. Vigren, J. E. Wahlund, M. K. Holmberg, M. Morooka et al., Titan's ionosphere: A survey of solar EUV influences, J. Geophys. Res. Sp. Phys, vol.122, pp.7491-7503, 2017.

O. Shebanits, J. Wahlund, N. J. Edberg, F. J. Crary, A. Wellbrock et al., Ion and aerosol precursor densities in Titan's ionosphere: A multi-instrument case study, J. Geophys. Res. Sp. Phys, vol.121, pp.75-85, 2016.

O. Shebanits, J. E. Wahlund, K. Mandt, K. Ågren, N. J. Edberg et al., Negative ion densities in the ionosphere of Titan-Cassini RPWS/LP results, Planet. Space Sci, vol.84, pp.153-162, 2013.

,

P. K. Shukla and A. A. Mamun, Introduction to dusty plasma physics, Introduction to Dusty Plasma Physics, 2015.

S. Tigrine, N. Carrasco, D. K. Bozanic, G. A. Garcia, and L. Nahon, FUV Photoionization of Titan Atmospheric Aerosols, Astrophys. J, vol.867, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01925818

E. Vigren, M. Galand, O. Shebanits, J. E. Wahlund, W. D. Geppert et al., Increasing positive ion number densities below the peak of ion-electron pair production in titan's ionosphere, Astrophys. J, vol.786, 2014.

E. Vigren, M. Galand, A. Wellbrock, A. J. Coates, J. Cui et al., Suprathermal electrons in Titan's sunlit ionosphere: model-observation comparisons, Astrophys. J, vol.826, p.131, 2016.

E. Vigren, M. Galand, R. V. Yelle, J. Cui, J. E. Wahlund et al., On the thermal electron balance in Titan's sunlit upper atmosphere, Icarus, vol.223, pp.234-251, 2013.

E. Vigren, M. Galand, R. V. Yelle, A. Wellbrock, A. J. Coates et al., Ionization balance in Titan's nightside ionosphere, Icarus, vol.248, pp.539-546, 2015.

M. K. Wahlström, E. Johansson, E. Veszelei, P. Bennich, M. Olsson et al., Improved Langmuir probe surface coatings for the Cassini satellite, Thin Solid Films, vol.220, pp.315-320, 1992.

J. E. Wahlund, M. André, A. I. Eriksson, M. Lundberg, M. W. Morooka et al., Detection of dusty plasma near the E-ring of Saturn, Planet. Space Sci, vol.57, pp.1795-1806, 2009.

J. E. Wahlund, R. Boström, G. Gustafsson, D. A. Gurnett, W. S. Kurth et al., Cassini measurements of cold plasma in the ionosphere of Titan, Science, vol.308, pp.986-989, 2005.

J. H. Waite, H. Niemann, R. V. Yelle, W. T. Kasprzak, T. E. Cravens et al., Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer results from the first flyby of Titan, Science, vol.308, pp.982-986, 2005.

X. Wang, H. W. Hsu, and M. Horányi, Identification of when a Langmuir probe is in the sheath of a spacecraft: The effects of secondary electron emission from the probe, J. Geophys. Res. Sp. Phys, vol.120, pp.2428-2437, 2015.

E. C. Whipple, The equilibrium electric potential of a body in the upper atmosphere and in the interplanetary space, 1965.

A. Woodard, K. Shojaei, C. Berrospe-rodriguez, G. Nava, and L. Mangolini, Electron emission from particles strongly affects the electron energy distribution in dusty plasmas, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, vol.38, p.23005, 2020.

. References-for-the and . Conclusion,

E. Carrasco, M. Jiménez-redondo, I. Tanarro, and V. J. Herrero, Chemistry in low-pressure cold plasmas: Ions of astrophysical interest, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion, vol.54, 2012.

P. Lavvas, R. V. Yelle, T. Koskinen, A. Bazin, V. Vuitton et al., Aerosol growth in Titan's ionosphere, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A, vol.110, pp.2729-2734, 2013.

Y. Sekine, H. Imanaka, T. Matsui, B. N. Khare, E. L. Bakes et al., The role of organic haze in Titan's atmospheric chemistry. I. Laboratory investigation on heterogeneous reaction of atomic hydrogen with Titan tholin, Icarus, vol.194, pp.186-200, 2008.

K. Van-laer, S. Tinck, V. Samara, J. F. De-marneffe, and A. Bogaerts, Etching of low-k materials for microelectronics applications by means of a N2/H2 plasma : modeling and experimental investigation, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol, vol.22, 2013.

E. Vigren, M. Galand, O. Shebanits, J. E. Wahlund, W. D. Geppert et al., Increasing positive ion number densities below the peak of ion-electron pair production in titan's ionosphere, Astrophys. J, vol.786, 2014.

V. Vuitton, R. V. Yelle, S. J. Klippenstein, S. M. Hörst, and P. Lavvas, Simulating the density of organic species in the atmosphere of Titan with a coupled ion-neutral photochemical model, Icarus, vol.324, pp.120-197, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02104659

R. Titan,

, Sommaire I-Introduction ???????????????????????????????????????? p, p.299

. Titan, Stratégie : simulation à l'aide d'une décharge plasma en N2-H2 La spectrométrie de masse Etude d'une décharge RF CCP Etude d'une décharge DC Conclusion : les espèces érosives de l'ionosphère de Titan III-Erosion d'aérosols organiques dans un plasma en N2-H2 ??????????????, alerte pollution aux particules fines Une chimie ionique complexe dans l'ionosphère Simuler l'ionosphère de Titan en laboratoire Evolution des aérosols dans l'ionosphère II-Etude des espèces érosives de l'ionosphère de Titan ????????????????, p.311

K. Ågren, J. Wahlund, P. Garnier, R. Modolo, J. Cui et al., On the ionospheric structure of Titan, Planet. Space Sci, vol.57, pp.1821-1827, 2009.

G. Alcouffe, M. Cavarroc, G. Cernogora, F. Ouni, A. Jolly et al., Capacitively coupled plasma used to simulate Titan's atmospheric chemistry, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol, vol.19, 2010.

L. L. Alves, L. Marques, C. D. Pintassilgo, G. Wattieaux, E. Es-sebbar et al., Capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharges in nitrogen at low pressures, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol, vol.21, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00716113

G. Arney, S. D. Domagal-goldman, V. S. Meadows, E. T. Wolf, E. Schwieterman et al., The Pale Orange Dot: The Spectrum and Habitability of Hazy Archean Earth, Astrobiology, vol.16, pp.873-899, 2016.

N. Carrasco, S. Tigrine, L. Gavilan, L. Nahon, and M. S. Gudipati, The evolution of Titan's high-altitude aerosols under ultraviolet irradiation, Nat. Astron, vol.2, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01767663

A. Chatain, N. Carrasco, N. Ruscassier, T. Gautier, L. Vettier et al., Interaction dust -plasma in Titan's ionosphere: an experimental simulation of aerosols erosion, Icarus, vol.345, p.113741, 2020.

A. Chatain, M. Jiménez-redondo, L. Vettier, O. Guaitella, N. Carrasco et al., N2-H2 capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharges at low pressure. Part I. Experimental results: effect of the H2 amount on electrons, positive ions and ammonia formation, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol, 2020.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-02867254

A. J. Coates, F. J. Crary, G. R. Lewis, D. T. Young, J. J. Waite et al., Discovery of heavy negative ions in Titan's ionosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.34, p.22103, 2007.

A. J. Coates, A. Wellbrock, G. R. Lewis, G. H. Jones, D. T. Young et al., Heavy negative ions in Titan's ionosphere: Altitude and latitude dependence, Planet. Space Sci, vol.57, pp.1866-1871, 2009.

F. J. Crary, B. A. Magee, K. Mandt, J. H. Waite, J. Westlake et al., Heavy ions, temperatures and winds in Titan's ionosphere: Combined Cassini CAPS and INMS observations, Planet. Space Sci, vol.57, pp.1847-1856, 2009.

J. Cui, R. V. Yelle, V. Vuitton, J. H. Waite, W. T. Kasprzak et al., Analysis of Titan's neutral upper atmosphere from Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer measurements, Icarus, vol.200, pp.581-615, 2009.

A. R. De-souza, M. Digiacomo, J. L. Muzart, J. Nahorny, and A. Ricard, Dissociation of N2 in flowing glow discharge: Influence of H2*, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys, vol.5, pp.185-189, 1999.

D. Dubois, N. Carrasco, J. Bourgalais, L. Vettier, R. T. Desai et al., Nitrogencontaining Anions and Tholin Growth in Titan's Ionosphere: Implications for Cassini CAPS-ELS Observations, Astrophys. J, vol.872, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-02054827

D. Dubois, N. Carrasco, L. Jovanovic, L. Vettier, T. Gautier et al., Positive ion chemistry in an N2-CH4 plasma discharge: Key precursors to the growth of Titan tholins, Icarus, vol.338, 2020.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-02305252

D. Dubois, N. Carrasco, M. Petrucciani, L. Vettier, S. Tigrine et al., situ investigation of neutrals involved in the formation of Titan tholins, vol.317, pp.182-196, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01832003

,

N. J. Edberg, D. J. Andrews, C. Bertucci, D. A. Gurnett, M. K. Holmberg et al., , p.317

J. D. Opgenoorth, H. J. Shebanits, O. Vigren, E. Wahlund, and J. , Effects of Saturn's magnetospheric dynamics on Titan's ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Sp. Phys, vol.120, pp.8884-8898, 2015.

M. Galand, A. J. Coates, T. E. Cravens, and J. Wahlund, Titan's Ionosphere, pp.296-361, 2014.

B. Gordiets, C. M. Ferreira, M. J. Pinheiro, and A. Ricard, Self-consistent kinetic model of low-pressure N2-H2 flowing discharges: I. Volume processes, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol, vol.7, pp.363-378, 1998.

E. Hadamcik, J. B. Renard, G. Alcouffe, G. Cernogora, A. C. Levasseur-regourd et al., Laboratory lightscattering measurements with Titan's aerosols analogues produced by a dusty plasma, Planet. Space Sci, vol.57, pp.1631-1641, 2009.

J. He, A. Buch, N. Carrasco, and C. Szopa, Thermal degradation of organics for pyrolysis in space: Titan's atmospheric aerosol case study, Icarus, vol.248, pp.205-212, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01075658

M. Jiménez-redondo, A. Chatain, L. Vettier, O. Guaitella, G. Cernogora et al., N2-H2 capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharges at low pressure. Part II. Modelling results: the relevance of plasma-surface interaction, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol, 2020.

P. Lavvas, M. Sander, M. Kraft, and H. Imanaka, Surface chemistry and particle shape: Processes for the evolution of aerosols in Titan's atmosphere, Astrophys. J, vol.728, 2011.

P. Lavvas, R. V. Yelle, T. Koskinen, A. Bazin, V. Vuitton et al., Aerosol growth in Titan's ionosphere, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A, vol.110, pp.2729-2734, 2013.

R. D. Lorenz, E. P. Turtle, J. W. Barnes, M. G. Trainer, D. S. Adams et al., Dragonfly: A rotorcraft lander concept for scientific exploration at titan, Johns Hopkins APL Tech. Dig, vol.34, pp.374-387, 2018.

J. Loureiro and A. Ricard, Electron and vibrational kinetics in an N2-H2 glow discharge with application to surface processes, J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys, vol.26, pp.163-176, 1993.

B. A. Magee, J. H. Waite, K. E. Mandt, J. Westlake, J. Bell et al., INMS-derived composition of Titan's upper atmosphere: Analysis methods and model comparison, Planet. Space Sci, vol.57, pp.1895-1916, 2009.

J. Maillard, N. Carrasco, I. Schmitz-afonso, T. Gautier, and C. Afonso, Comparison of soluble and insoluble organic matter in analogues of Titan's aerosols, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.495, pp.185-191, 2018.

S. L. Miller, A production of amino acids under possible primitive earth conditions, Science, vol.117, pp.528-529, 1953.

R. B. Piejak, V. A. Godyak, R. Garner, B. M. Alexandrovich, and N. Sternberg, The hairpin resonator: A plasma density measuring technique revisited, J. Appl. Phys, vol.95, pp.3785-3791, 2004.

P. Rannou, F. Hourdin, C. P. Mckay, and D. Luz, A coupled dynamics-microphysics model of Titan's atmosphere, Icarus, vol.170, pp.443-462, 2004.

C. Sagan and B. N. Khare, Tholins: Organic chemistry of interstellar grains and gas, Nature, vol.277, pp.102-107, 1979.

Y. Sekine, H. Imanaka, T. Matsui, B. N. Khare, E. L. Bakes et al., The role of organic haze in Titan's atmospheric chemistry. I. Laboratory investigation on heterogeneous reaction of atomic hydrogen with Titan tholin, Icarus, vol.194, pp.186-200, 2008.

O. Shebanits, J. Wahlund, N. J. Edberg, F. J. Crary, A. Wellbrock et al., , p.318

A. J. Coates, K. E. Mandt, and J. H. Waite, Ion and aerosol precursor densities in Titan's ionosphere: A multi-instrument case study, J. Geophys. Res. Sp. Phys, vol.121, pp.75-85, 2016.

C. Szopa, G. Cernogora, L. Boufendi, J. J. Correia, and P. Coll, PAMPRE: A dusty plasma experiment for Titan's tholins production and study, Planet. Space Sci, vol.54, pp.394-404, 2006.

S. Tigrine, N. Carrasco, D. K. Bozanic, G. A. Garcia, and L. Nahon, FUV Photoionization of Titan Atmospheric Aerosols, Astrophys. J, vol.867, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01925818

K. Van-laer, S. Tinck, V. Samara, J. F. De-marneffe, and A. Bogaerts, Etching of low-k materials for microelectronics applications by means of a N2/H2 plasma : modeling and experimental investigation, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol, vol.22, 2013.

E. Vigren, M. Galand, O. Shebanits, J. E. Wahlund, W. D. Geppert et al., Increasing positive ion number densities below the peak of ion-electron pair production in titan's ionosphere, Astrophys. J, vol.786, 2014.

V. Vuitton, R. V. Yelle, S. J. Klippenstein, S. M. Hörst, and P. Lavvas, Simulating the density of organic species in the atmosphere of Titan with a coupled ion-neutral photochemical model, Icarus, vol.324, pp.120-197, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02104659

J. E. Wahlund, R. Boström, G. Gustafsson, D. A. Gurnett, W. S. Kurth et al., Cassini measurements of cold plasma in the ionosphere of Titan, Science, vol.308, pp.986-989, 2005.

J. H. Waite, D. T. Young, T. E. Cravens, A. J. Coates, F. J. Crary et al., Planetary science: The process of tholin formation in Titan's upper atmosphere, Science, vol.316, pp.870-875, 2007.

A. Wellbrock, A. J. Coates, G. H. Jones, G. R. Lewis, and J. H. Waite, Cassini CAPS-ELS observations of negative ions in Titan's ionosphere: Trends of density with altitude, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.40, pp.4481-4485, 2013.

R. A. West, B. Seignovert, P. Rannou, P. Dumont, E. P. Turtle et al., The seasonal cycle of Titan's detached haze, Nat. Astron, vol.2, pp.495-500, 2018.

E. C. Whipple, The equilibrium electric potential of a body in the upper atmosphere and in the interplanetary space, 1965.

A. Woodard, K. Shojaei, C. Berrospe-rodriguez, G. Nava, and L. Mangolini, Electron emission from particles strongly affects the electron energy distribution in dusty plasmas, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, vol.38, p.23005, 2020.