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De la description d'intermédiaires réactionnels au développement de nouveaux catalyseurs pour l'oligomérisation de l'éthylène au nickel

Abstract : Linear α-olefins are very important intermediates in the chemical and petrochemical industries. They have various applications but they are mainly used as co-monomers in the production of various grades of polyethylene. In this topic, the short LAOs (1-butene, 1-hexene and 1-octene) are the most interesting. Today LAOs are almost exclusively produced by ethylene oligomérisation with homogenous catalysts and there are two different industrial processes : “On purpose” and “Full-range” processes. “On purpose” processes are selective toward an α-olefin and catalyst used are based on Ti or Cr complexes. The mechanism described with these types of catalysts is a metallacyclic mechanism. On the other hand ethylene oligomérisation with “full-range” processes is done mainly with Ni or Zr catalysts. In these case a large distribution of olefins is obtained and the mechanism described is a degenerative polymerisation mechanism. The aim of this thesis is to develop a Ni-based system which is active in ethylene oligomérisation through a metallacylcic mechanism in order to access good selectivity toward LAOs. In the metallacyclic mechanism the key step is the oxidative coupling of the two ethylene molecules in which the oxidation state of the metal goes from n to n+2. The couples Ni0/NiII and NiI/NiIII has been investigated in this thesis. Ni 0 and Ni I precursors with various ligands have been synthesized and tested in a semi-batch reactor under high pressure of ethylene with various activation methods. Mechanistic studies have been made using various analytical methods such has NMR and EPR spectroscopies and a big effort has been made in the development of a mass spectrometry method to observe reactive intermediates. In addition, almost all the experimental observations have been rationalized thanks to molecular modeling by DFT.
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Emile Moser. De la description d'intermédiaires réactionnels au développement de nouveaux catalyseurs pour l'oligomérisation de l'éthylène au nickel. Catalyse. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSEN055⟩. ⟨tel-02970704⟩

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