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Réponse des groupes microbiens impliques dans la dynamique de l'azote du sol aux facteurs du changement global et aux incendies

Abstract : The impact of global environmental changes on the diversity and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems has received increasing attention. Many studies evaluated the effects of single -and less often multiple- global change factors on soil N cycling processes in grasslands. However, these studies have not recognized that altered precipitation regime also has an influence on wet N deposition regime. Further, the response of grassland soil N cycling to co-occurring multiple global change factors and disturbance like fire, and how N cycling response to fire could differ under different global change scenarios, remains unclear. This strongly restricts our ability to understand and predict global change effect on grasslands. In this work, two experiments were conducted: (i) a mesocosm experiment to assess the combined effects of increased N deposition and changes in both the amount and frequency of rainfall on soil N cycling in a semi-arid Monsoon grassland; and (ii) an in situ experiment to assess the combined effects of elevated CO2, warming, increased precipitation, N deposition and fire on soil N cycling in a Mediterranean grassland. This allows studying the -possibly interactive- effects of several global change factors on the abundances of soil N-cycling microbial communities. The microbial groups studied were ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea (AOB and AOA, respectively), nirK- and nirS-nitrite reducers, nosZI- and nosZII-N2O reducers, plus Nitrobacter and Nitrospira for the Mediterranean grassland. The main results and conclusions are: 1)The responses of different groups of soil (de)nitrifiers to global change scenarios differed strongly regardless the grassland type. AOB were mostly driven by N. In contrast, AOA were more sensitive to soil water dynamics than N dynamics in both grasslands. Nitrobacter abundance was mostly affected by global change factors through their effects on AOB abundance, whereas Nitrospira abundance was more related to changes of AOA in the Mediterranean grassland. Similarly, nirK- and nirS-harboring nitrite reducers and nosZI-harboring N2O reducers were more sensitive to N deposition than nosZII-harboring N2O reducers, and nirK- and nirS-bacteria positively responded to reduced precipitation. This highlights niche differentiation between them and indicates that the balance between them may be altered in the future; 2)In the Mediterranean grassland, where high N deposition was simulated by two N addition events each year, the N effect dominated global change effects. In contrast, in the Monsson grassland, chronic wet N deposition did not increase denitrifier abundance and only weakly increased soil N2O emissions. This was explained by the efficient capture of added N by the dominant grass species and by the increased plant growth leading to increased transpiration and decreased soil moisture. 3)For both grasslands, the interaction between global change factors on soil N cycling could not be predicted simply by studying the effects of one or two factors. These interactive effects were explained by effects on key environmental variables like soil moisture, mineral N availability, pH and belowground plant growth.These results demonstrates the limitation of predicting how (de)nitrifiers respond to global change scenarios involving multiple factors only from studying single factor effects. Particularly, interactive effects were observed between N deposition, decreased precipitation amount and altered precipitation frequency in the Monsoon grassland; and between fire, N deposition, warming, elevated precipitation and elevated CO2 in the Mediterranean grassland. This calls for more comprehensive studies in the global change biology domain. Modelling and evaluating the generality of these complex interaction effects is thus a high priority for research to predict the responses of soil N cycling processes to global change and feedbacks on climate in the future
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Yujie Shi. Réponse des groupes microbiens impliques dans la dynamique de l'azote du sol aux facteurs du changement global et aux incendies. Ecologie, Environnement. Université de Lyon; Université Normale du Nord-Est (Changchun, Chine), 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSE1254⟩. ⟨tel-02968588⟩

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