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L’espace muséographique au Japon : concepts et spécificités de la mise en exposition des œuvres dans les musées d’art

Abstract : At the crossroads of disciplines such as architecture, museology, museum-scenography, history of museums and architecture, aiming to go beyond the historical approach and the simple description, this research studies the museum space in art museums in Japan. Since the appearance in the Japanese vocabulary of the word "art museum", bijutsukan, on the occasion of Japan’s first participation in the World Exposition in Vienna, 1873, the 21st century museums have evolved towards the expression of Japan’s very own aesthetic and cultural values. This research examines the museums evolution over time, between aesthetic experience and sociability, through the study of museums, exhibitions typologies, and models of spatial distribution. The premodern Japanese architecture developed particular forms of creation and construction, including a spatiality open to the landscape, which can also be found in contemporary achievements. In this respect, research is based on pre-Meiji traditions in religious and domestic architecture, as well as the display of artworks and objects. The approach to the status of museum exhibit and the notion of national treasure, kokuhō, as well as the museum space and its relation to the art museum collections, are considered in parallel with certain aspects of traditional housing, such as the codified placement of paintings and art objects in the tokonoma. Current architectural and museum practices are studied through different aspects of the museums layout and exhibition design: from the museum’s architecture to the exhibition space, up to the perception of the artworks. The exhibition is understood as a communication of meaning, the museum space as a cultural and physical space, imbued with symbols, from the classical approach to display, purely aesthetic, to contemporary evolution towards a conceptual space of interpretation. The reading of the museum space as a communicator of meaning and of the exhibition route as space-time passes by the definition of terms and spatial notions, as an expression of a way of thinking the space. In order to understand the link between the artworks and the museographic space, perceived as a medium of content, this research considers the spatial device and the modes of display in their specificities. The museum is a public space where intimacy must be created with the work on display. Thus the exhibition spaces are charged to the visitor with an almost emotional value. Japanese literature helps to shed light on this aspect of museum perception in Japanese society and imagination. Through a work of simplification and synthesis in the design of spaces, by resuming certain spatial practices of premodern architecture, museums in Japan have developed specific modalities for the creation and construction of space. Building by revisiting tradition is the Japanese way to revive heritage in the architecture and space of the museum, which is expressed in particular by the attention to nature, the location in the site and the choice of materials, the intimacy of the inner-outer relationship, the path and the articulation of spaces. Combining aesthetics and functionality, architectural and environmental quality, museographic quality and conservation of works, museums and contemporary museum installations, often the work of internationally renowned Japanese architects, are thus exemplary and coherent achievements, successfully experimenting an architecture of complex interrelations, in a museum vision open to visitors, sensations and the world.
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Submitted on : Monday, October 19, 2020 - 4:38:37 PM
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Giada Ricci. L’espace muséographique au Japon : concepts et spécificités de la mise en exposition des œuvres dans les musées d’art. Art et histoire de l'art. Université Paris sciences et lettres, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020UPSLP003⟩. ⟨tel-02965754v2⟩

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