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LA CARTOGRAPHIE PARTICIPATIVE : UN OUTIL DE DIALOGUE ET DE PRÉVENTION DES CONFLITS DANS LES COMMUNAUTÉS DE NGUTI, REGION DU SUD-OUEST CAMEROUN

Abstract : At a time when decentralization seems to be the hope of local development in Cameroon, there is a problem of adapted tools to this regard. It is in a measure where the state wants to increase investments as well as exploitation of resources for its economic development. There is a sort of negligence in the juridical framework in terms of inclusion of communities in the process of land distribution and land use. Thus insecurity in the customary tenure bringing impacts in local development and consequently on the sustainable management of resources. It does not explicitly treat the problem of rural land tenure and no longer correspond to the conceptions of present uses of local communities. In the Nguti Council area where only 30% of the land is under customary tenure, we note a very low concertation in decisions of land distribution between the state and the 54 communities existing with an ever growing demand for land between 2009 and 2016. If customary land is increasingly being solicited by the state, it is because obsolete maps used show an abundance of available resources. This thesis puts forth participatory cartography as a tool of dialogue and prevention of conflicts of forest resource use between the state and local communities. We used a bottom-up and top-bottom approach which according to the subsidiary principle permit us to get updates on decisions on priorities of local development. It is a methodology essentially based on the MARP technique and that of modern cartography that is essentially participative through tools of participatory diagnosis accessible to local communities. It was adapted to the study context and the stakes present in the Nguti council area. The indigenous population in forest land here are in conflicts of resources use. Techniques used permitted the production of socio-economic data (spatial distribution of subsistence activities, the structure and organization of traditional power and the land tenure of communities in Nguti sub-division). Results show that land distribution in the Nguti community has a non-negligible impact on customary land tenure that represents only 30% of the national land. More than 20.000 inhabitants are resident distributed in 54 communities and 9 clans. Close to 70% of the land fall under state classified domain. These are the Mbayang Mbo biosphere reserve, Kwende Hills forest reserve, SGSOC-Heracles agro-industry, council forest, 3 community forest, UFA 11007 and 4 exploitation units. For communities, it is basic needs linked to agricultural activities (hunting and gathering) that are found invaded by land distribution. The traditional land tenure of communities in Nguti is precarious. It is retreating day by day without a visible veritable development while the resources with which it cohabits should be a base for their development. This situation of insecurity is accentuated by the use of obsolete documents in decision making that no longer respond to the present needs of each stakeholder. The population and the level of resource use of 1974 has quadruple. There is need to promote an inclusive management of resources in order to promote sustainable development and limit diverse conflicts. Also, despite the availability of flourishing resources, community uses are not secured. The exploitation of resources only profits the state and investors. There is the absence of the principle of participatory management of resources. The inclusion of the Nguti communities in participatory cartography permitted close to 450 member of the community to carry out a socio-economic diagnosis of their traditional tenure which helped to plead for change in the system of decision making in their territory. It also helped in putting in place a local plan of land use adapted to local problems which helps to reduce conflicts of existing land use and inform decision makers on the extent of community land uses. This information should enable that this area be taken into consideration in the regional zoning plan in course.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, October 13, 2020 - 10:37:31 AM
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Juscar Ndjounguep. LA CARTOGRAPHIE PARTICIPATIVE : UN OUTIL DE DIALOGUE ET DE PRÉVENTION DES CONFLITS DANS LES COMMUNAUTÉS DE NGUTI, REGION DU SUD-OUEST CAMEROUN. Géographie. Universite de Yaoundé I (Cameroun), 2020. Français. ⟨tel-02964122⟩

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