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Etude de mécanismes cellulaires et moléculaires impliqués dans la réponse et l'adaptation d'Arabidopsis à des stress métalliques : dynamique de modifications post-traductionnelles au cours d'un stress cadmium et effets de l'uranium sur le système racinaire

Abstract : Plant response and adaptation to metallic stress are involving numerous mechanisms limiting the toxic effect of metals. Although a large number of these mechanisms are well characterized, many processes are in need to be identified in order to have a better understanding of strategies involved in plant response to toxic elements.In first instance, we investigated the role of two post-translational modifications, phosphorylation and methylation of non-histone proteins in response to stress induced by two toxic metals, cadmium and uranium. We analyzed the dynamic of these modifications in three species of Arabidopsis: A. thaliana, A. lyrata two species sensitive to cadmium and A. halleri, a species which naturally tolerate and hyperaccumulate toxic metals in her leaves. By using Western blots and mass spectrometry in parallel, we showed that lysine methylation pattern were changing during metallic stresses. Next, we analyzed the gene expression of enzymes involved in phosphorylation and lysine methylation processes in plants exposed to different adverse conditions. These analyses showed that numerous kinases expressions were differentially regulated in response to metallic stress. Concerning protein lysine methyltransferases, only a few enzymes were differentially regulated. Finally, through a mutant genetic screening we identified two genes coding for protein lysine methyltransferases involved in tolerance to a stress induced by cadmium.Secondly, we studied the physiological and cellular processes involved in the response of A. thaliana root system to uranium. Through the utilization of several reporters and the measure of physiological parameters, we demonstrated that the root architecture was strongly modulated in response to a stress induced by uranium and that in a dose dependent manner. These effects are linked to a cell cycle inhibition and the synthesis and accumulation of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxyde wich participated in the root apex cell death. These changes were associated with perturbation in auxin transport and distribution at the root apex and were temporally correlated to the deposition of defense polymers (callose and lignin) involved in cell proofing and cell wall stiffness. This study is confirming the fact that uranium induced stress is intimately linked to a disruption of phosphate and iron homeostasis. Furthermore, uranium-signaling cascade are sharing a part of the phosphate starvation-signaling cascade.Together, these two studies are revealing mechanisms involved in plant response and adaptation to metallic trace elements through the thin tuning of non-histone methylation and the identification of cellular process involved in the toxicity of uranium in roots.
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Nelson Serre. Etude de mécanismes cellulaires et moléculaires impliqués dans la réponse et l'adaptation d'Arabidopsis à des stress métalliques : dynamique de modifications post-traductionnelles au cours d'un stress cadmium et effets de l'uranium sur le système racinaire. Biologie végétale. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAV019⟩. ⟨tel-02963885⟩

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