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Déterminants et conséquences de l'hypotension orthostatique en population générale et hypertendue

Abstract : Orthostatic hypotension is a blood pressure drop when moving to standing position. It is associated with an over-risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure and total mortality. From this point of view, it is close to the conventional markers of blood pressure variability which are the inter-visit blood pressure variability, the mid-term variability measured by home blood pressure and the short-term variability measured by an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. However, unlike these conventional markers, the association with dementia has not been demonstrated. In addition, the relationships between orthostatic hypotension and these other markers of variability are not known. Finally, although the diagnosis of orthostatic hypotension is relatively simple, the generalization of screening in consultation is not achieved. Objectives: In this work, we propose to measure the association of the orthostatic hypotension and the occurrence of dementia. In addition, we will carry out a mechanistic study of the determinants of orthostatic hypotension through its relations with two particular parameters : mid term variability and arterial stiffness. Finally, we will propose a diagnostic method using home blood pressure measurement. Material and methods: This work is based on the "3 Cities" cohort which is a general population cohort of subjects over 65 years old recruited from three centres: Bordeaux, Dijon and Montpellier. We will first study the association between orthostatic hypotension at baseline cohort and the occurrence of dementia in the 12-year follow-up through survival analyses. A second cross-sectional study will use a sample of Dijon subjects around the 10-year follow-up who were screened for orthostatic hypotension, pulse wave velocity measurement and performed a series of home blood pressure measurement. Finally, the last work will propose a feasibility study on the routine care of screening for orthostatic hypotension using an adapted blood pressure self-measurement protocol. Results: 7425 subjects were followed over a 12-year period. The prevalence of orthostatic hypotension was 13%. The number of incident cases of dementia was 512. Survival analyses showed that orthostatic hypotension was associated with an over-risk of dementia in the order of 25% adjusted with blood pressure level. In the second work, a cross-sectional analysis in 1000 subjects showed that orthostatic hypotension was independently associated with both mid-term blood pressure variability and arterial stiffness. Pressure variability and arterial stiffness were not associated. In the third work, we performed 500 series of home blood pressure with a BP measurement in the standing position without altering the quality of the classical report. Conclusion: Orthostatic hypotension is a rich hemodynamic parameter that reflects both a marked vascular ageing and a defect of immediate blood pressure regulation. It is independently associated with the risk of dementia. An improvement in diagnosis is possible through self-measurement of blood pressure, which allows more measurements to be taken in the standing position and improves the screening rate.
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Antoine Cremer. Déterminants et conséquences de l'hypotension orthostatique en population générale et hypertendue. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Bordeaux, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020BORD0038⟩. ⟨tel-02963157⟩

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