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Développement, caractérisation et optimisation d'une source plasma pour le traitement de liquides

Abstract : In recent decades, a growing interest in the characterization and optimization of atmospheric pressure plasma jets has emerged due to the variety of possible applications. One of them concerns the decontamination of liquids containing pollutants. Indeed, plasma jets are capable of creating oxidizing agents such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), electric fields, UV/VUV radiation and charged species. In particular, the variety and number of RONS that are created and deposited in the liquid phase are two key parameters. Understanding and optimizing them is fundamental to the development of an effective plasma source for liquid decontamination. The creation of RONS is possible by a cascade of energy transfers between the species in the plasma, the surrounding air and the liquid target placed in contact with the plasma jet. Therefore, it is necessary to study the species providing these RONS, namely the metastable helium atoms He(23S). These species have the particularity of storing a relatively high energy (19.8 eV), and can release it several tens of nanoseconds after, in the case of plasma in He + 0.2% O2 mixture. The collision between these metastables and air species causes the creation of reactive species in the gas and liquid phase. These reactive species can then reduce or destroy the pollutant present in the water. In this work, the study is separated in three parts: the plasma, the liquid, and the biocidal efficiency of the plasma jet. The study of the source geometry influence, the flow rate or the gas mixture on the quantity of metastable helium atoms in the plasma jet is performed by laser absorption spectroscopy. The use of Abel inversion allows the density and lifetime of these species to be determined locally in the plasma jet during its interaction with a liquid target. Optical emission spectroscopy is used to map all excited species between 200 and 1000 nm present in the plasma jet. These excited species in the plasma are also studied using an intensified camera to monitor the spatial and temporal evolution of the plasma jet during its propagation in the air. The asymmetric source, whose mass electrode has a larger surface than a conventional source (symmetric source), produces more metastable helium atoms and excited species. The quantities of the main RONS (hydrogen peroxides, nitrites and nitrates) were measured in the liquid. The complex molecule targeted in this study to model water pollutant is methylene blue.[...]
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Laurent Invernizzi. Développement, caractérisation et optimisation d'une source plasma pour le traitement de liquides. Physique [physics]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019TOU30231⟩. ⟨tel-02957690⟩

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