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Effet de l'environnement sur les stratégies comportementales du bar Dicentrarchus labrax. Cas d'une pénurie de nourriture et d'une marée noire

Abstract : Marine ecosystems are under a wide range of natural or anthropogenic forcings. In response to these forcings, marine organisms rely notably on their phenotypic plasticity to preserve their fitness. In this thesis, I am particularly interested in the behavioural plasticity of juvenile European sea bass in response to two environmental stressors, food deprivation and exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the consequences of these disturbances through an integrative approach that assesses direct effects at the individual level, but also possible indirect impacts at the population and community levels.The behavioural tests implemented allowed the evaluation of three behavioural traits : sociability, risk-taking and exploration. From an analytical point of view, a principal component analysis was applied in order to objectify the identification of behaviours and their interpretation. Experimental results show that fasting reduces sociability and that exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons can lead to alterations in the anti-predator response. These results suggest adverse effects on the fitness of individuals with possible repercussions on ecological dynamics through altered intra- (gregarious) and inter-specific (predator/prey) relationships. This research illustrates how behavioural regulations can link the effects of environmental disturbances to multiple levels of organization, from the individual to the ecosystem.
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Cassandre Aimon. Effet de l'environnement sur les stratégies comportementales du bar Dicentrarchus labrax. Cas d'une pénurie de nourriture et d'une marée noire. Sciences agricoles. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019BRES0055⟩. ⟨tel-02957679⟩

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