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Méthodes de décomposition non-linéaire pour l'imagerie X spectrale

Abstract : Spectral tomodensitometry is a new emerging x-ray imaging modality. If the dual-energy principle was already known for quite some time, new developments on photon-counting detectors now allowing acquiring more energy bins than before. This modality allows reducing some artifacts presents in x-ray imaging, such as beam hardening, but mostly to decompose the data into the chemical composition of the imaged tissue. It also enables the use of new markers (i.e. gold) with an energic discontinuity. The use of these markers also allows to locate and quantify them in the patient, granting great potential for medical imaging. Decomposition in the projection domain followed by a tomographic reconstruction is a classical processing for those spectral data. However, decomposition methods in the projection domain are unstable for a high number of energy bins. Classical calibration technic is numerically unstable for more than two energy bins. This thesis aims to developed new material decomposition methods in the projections domains. After expressing the spectral forward model, the decomposition problem is expressed and dealt as a non-linear inverse problem. It will be solved by minimizing a cost function composed by a term characterizing the fidelity of the decomposition regarding the data and an \textit{a priori} of the decomposed material maps. We will firstly present an adaptation of the cost function that takes into account the Poissonian noise on the data. This formulation allows having better decomposed maps for a high level of noise than classical formulation. Then, two constrained algorithms will be presented. The first one, a projected Gauss-Newton algorithm, that enforces positivity on the decomposed maps, allows having better decomposed maps than an unconstrained algorithm. To improve the first algorithm, another one was developed that also used an egality constrain. The equality allows having images with fewer artifacts than before. These methods are tested on a numerical phantom of a mouse and thorax. To speed up the decomposition process, an automatic choice of parameters is presented, which allow faster decomposition while keeping good maps. Finally, the methods are tested on experimental data that are coming from a spectral scanner prototype.
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Submitted on : Friday, October 2, 2020 - 3:22:27 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-02956250, version 1

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Tom Hohweiller. Méthodes de décomposition non-linéaire pour l'imagerie X spectrale. Traitement du signal et de l'image [eess.SP]. Université de Lyon, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSEI097⟩. ⟨tel-02956250⟩

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