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Theses

Pathophysiologie des escarres dans le muscle squelettique

Abstract : Pressure ulcer is a pathology related to patient immobility, which can be either accidental or incidental to comorbidities. The first damage are located in muscle tissue before developing in cutaneous breakdown per an unclear pathophysiology. The core objective of my PhD was to identify the early signaling pathways involved in pressure ulcer development, through a transversal study. We hypothesized that muscle compression will induce a calcium imbalance in muscles by a dysfunction of calcium channels from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (Ryanodine receptor isoform 1, RyR1) which will lead to muscle damage and sub-cutaneous inflammation.Mice model of a 100 mmHg, 2 hours compression of abdominal muscles was used to identify the apoptotic pathway initiation and a rise of oxidative stress. RyR1 is hyper-nitrosylated and hyper-oxydated thus this remodeling induces depletion of RyR1 stabilizing protein, calstabin1, and the resulting leaky phenotype increases intracellular calcium concentration. This channel functional impairment was not reversible up to 3 days post-compression but it was possible to prevent it through rycal treatment, protecting the binding calstabin1/RyR1. In a clinical trial, we identified from a paraplegic population with existing pressure ulcers, a RyR1 remodeling in paralyzed muscles (intra patient comparison with a healthy muscle biopsy) and a hypoxia of tissues below the spinal cord injury. Calstabin1 dissociation was correlated to the mean and peak pressure intensity of interface pressure applied over the sacrum skin of the bedridden patient directly above the biopsy location.This thesis project focused on early signaling pathways participating in pressure ulcer in skeletal muscle. A mechanical strain induces an increase of the intracellular redox state, post translational RyR1 modifications and a channel dysfunction because of calstabin1 depletion. The significance of my work is to propose both pharmacology and non-invasive monitoring solutions to prevent first muscle damage in pressure ulcer development.
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Marion Le Gall. Pathophysiologie des escarres dans le muscle squelettique. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Montpellier, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018MONTT058⟩. ⟨tel-02955996⟩

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