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Formation de voies hybride analogique-numérique pour la réduction d'interférences dans les réseaux cellulaires de nouvelle génération

Abstract : Beamforming is a signal processing method used in antenna arrays, allowing to enhance directions of emission or reception of signals by controlling the different elements.In mobile networks especially, it allows interference reduction in base stations.Its full digital impementation is limited by energy consumption and cost when increasing the number of antennas.As a response, hybrid analog-digital implementation could be used to reduce the number of radiofrequency (RF) chains as well as the number of analog-to-digital converters.In this implementation, the analog stage could be realised using different types of devices (phase shifters, amlifiers/attenuators, variable impedances) and with a variable connectivity to the antenna array.Nevertheless, if we want to keep a simple RF circuitry by using phase shifters only to tune the analog beamformer, the problem of optimising these weights becomes non-convex.The current works on small cell networks show that the interference between base station is one of the limiting factors of the coverage and the datarate.Furthermore, in a full digital implementation, the presence of strong blockers leads to analog-to-digital converters saturation or desensitization.The purpose of this work is the study of hybrid beamforming with phase-only implementation, as well as to propose an algorithm to compute the beamforming matrices, to reduce the received interference in a small cell.After a description and a state-of-the-art, we preliminarily proposed an interference characterization using an algebraic angle between the signals of interest vectors and the interference vectors, which allowed us to obtain a lower bound on the SINR performance of the optimal beamformer.We have then proposed a sub-optimal solution of hybrid phase-only beamforming, which when using an infinite resolution digitization, has a low loss as compared to a solution using modulus and phase.Secondly, we introduced an analog-to-digital converter model, which allowed us to bring out the limitations of the first appproach as well as of the full digital implementation, in the presence of strong blockers.Afterwards, we proposed an optimisation algorithm of the analog stage, based on a semidefinite relaxation.The peroformance of this algorithm, in terms of SINR and sumrate are close to the benchmark with full degree of freedom, modulus and phase.In comparison, the performance state-of-the-art tested solutions using non-convex cost function are lower and depend on initialization point
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Mohammed Bekkar. Formation de voies hybride analogique-numérique pour la réduction d'interférences dans les réseaux cellulaires de nouvelle génération. Traitement du signal et de l'image [eess.SP]. Université Grenoble Alpes [2020-..], 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020GRALT007⟩. ⟨tel-02954699⟩

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