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Développement de nanovecteurs multicompartimentaux à base de cyclodextrines amphiphiles et de lipides pour des applications en nanomédecine

Abstract : The key idea of this Ph.D. thesis is to introduce amphiphilic β-cyclodextrin molecules (βCD), obtained by bio-transesterification, within lipid mesophases in order to obtain multi-compartment plurimolecular nano-assemblies, which combine three essential functions for transport or delivery of therapeutic molecules: (i) capacity to incorporate a substance of interest through formation of inclusion complexes with the modified cyclodextrin; (i) biocompatibility and ability to easily pass the biological barriers; and (iii) possibility for co-encapsulation of a second substance of interest, a hydrophilic or a hydrophobic one, whose biological action is different from that provided by the first substance. The performed Ph. D. work focused on the β-cyclodextrin derivative βCD-C10 with an average degree of substitution of 7.5 of the secondary face of the macrocycle by hydrocarbon chains C10. The association of this derivative with three classes of amphiphiles was studied: (i) nonionic micellar surfactants (Brij 98, Polysorbate 80, n-dodecyl β-D-maltoside), (ii) a lyotropic nonlamellar lipid forming bicontinuous cubic mesophases (monoolein), and (iii) a phospholipid (dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine), which self-ssembles into bilayer membranes permitting the production of vesicles.The employed physical-chemical approach involved different techniques for characterization of the mixed βCD-C10/lipid systems at molecular and supramolecular levels: cryo-transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, turbidimetry, and quasi-elastic light scattering.The obtained results indicated that the βCD-C10 derivative forms spontaneously (or via a very simple preparation protocol) plurimolecular mixed nano-assemblies with the three types of lipids. The topologies of the resulting nano-assemblies essentially depend on the chemical structures of the lipids and the degree of incorporation of the amphiphilic cyclodextrin (tubules, unilamellar or oligolamellar vesicles, and cubosomes). These assemblies, namely the mixed vesicles of nonionic surfactant/βCD-C10 and the cubosomes of mixed monoolein/P80/βCD-C10 compositions, are stable and capable of incorporation of hydrophobic guest substances.
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Leïla Zerkoune. Développement de nanovecteurs multicompartimentaux à base de cyclodextrines amphiphiles et de lipides pour des applications en nanomédecine. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PA114837⟩. ⟨tel-02954352⟩

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