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Secure Hardware Accelerators for Post-Quantum Cryptography

Abstract : Shor's quantum algorithm can be used to efficiently solve the integer factorisation problem and the discrete logarithm in certain groups. The security of the most commonly used public key cryptographic protocols relies on the conjectured hardness of exactly these mathematical problems. A sufficiently large quantum computer could therefore pose a threat to the confidentiality and authenticity of secure digital communication. Post quantum cryptography relies on mathematical problems that are computationally hard for quantum computers, such as Learning with Errors (LWE) and its variants RLWE and MLWE. In this thesis, we present and compare FPGA implementations of LWE, RLWE and MLWE based public key encryption algorithms. We discuss various trade-offs between security, computation time and hardware cost. The implementations are parallelized in order to obtain maximal speed-up. We show that MLWE has the best performance in terms of computation time and area utilization, and can be parallelized more efficiently than RLWE. We also discuss hardware security and propose countermeasures against side channel attacks for RLWE. We consider countermeasures from the state of the art, such as masking and blinding, and propose improvements to these algorithms. Moreover, we propose new countermeasures based on redundant number representation and the random shuffling of operations. All countermeasures are implemented on FPGA to compare their cost and computation time overhead. Our proposed protection based on redundant number representation is particularly flexible, in the sens that it can be implemented for various degrees of protection at various costs.
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Submitted on : Friday, February 26, 2021 - 11:35:08 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, November 3, 2021 - 6:16:14 AM


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  • HAL Id : tel-02953277, version 2


Timo Zijlstra. Secure Hardware Accelerators for Post-Quantum Cryptography. Cryptography and Security [cs.CR]. Université de Bretagne Sud, 2020. English. ⟨NNT : 2020LORIS564⟩. ⟨tel-02953277v2⟩



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