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Time-dependent damage in woven-ply thermoplastic composites above glass transition temperature

Abstract : In fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composite materials, the coupling between viscous behaviour (viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity) and damage mechanisms is very little studied at the mesoscopic scale and is mainly limited to port-mortem analyses. For high-temperature aeronautical applications (e.g., aircraft engine nacelle), the problem is even more complex within high performance thermoplastic matrix laminates PPS (Polyphenylene Sulfide) reinforced with carbon fiber fabrics. Indeed, these materials are characterized by matrix-rich zones whose viscous behaviors are exacerbated for service temperatures (i.e., 120°C) higher than the matrix glass transition temperature (about 95°C). It is therfore necessary to develop specific experimental procedures to highlight and quantify the viscous damage when the behaviour of C/PPS laminates is driven by the mechanical response of the matrix. In order to provide answers to this problem, one can evaluate : (1) the influence of the matrix viscosity on the translaminar fracture behaviour - (2) the time-dependent damage during creep-type loading. These two lines of study are based on the development of experimental protocols adapted to high temperature mechanical testing. Thus, the originality of this work is to combine different complementary techniques (acoustic emission, edge replication, fractographic analysis, tomography) which allow in-situ and in real time analyses of the damage mechanisms that coexist and interact during the different loading phases. Using the protocol developed under conditions of temperature higher than the Tg of the material, these techniques provide information to quantify and dissociate the different material behaviours (viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, damage) as well as structural effects (fibre rotation). Image analyses based on dilatation/erosion algorithms implemented in Matlab allow the evaluation of the surface cracking density (intra- and inter-strand) from edge replicas. On a macroscopic scale, the thermomechanical response of C/PPS is little influenced by the viscous behaviour of C/PSS, whether for quasi-isotropic laminates (behaviour mainly driven by 0°fibres) or with oriented plies (behaviour mainly driven by the PPS matrix). Finally, the ductile translaminar fracture is characterized by the evolution of the cumulative acoustic energy as a function of the energy restitution rate. The instability of the translaminar fracture does not allow the quantification of the influence of viscous effects on the mode I toughness of the material at initiation. At micro and mesoscopic scales, the results obtained clearly show time-dependent damage within oriented plies C/PPS laminates subjected to creep loadings at T > Tg. By implementing this protocol, the demonstrated relevance/complementarity of the acoustic emission associated with the quantification of the cracking density allows the study of the coupling between viscous effects and damage within C/PPS laminates subjected to high temperature loading. This problem is essential from the point of view of the durability of composite structures in an engine environment.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, September 29, 2020 - 11:07:21 AM
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David Bouscarrat. Time-dependent damage in woven-ply thermoplastic composites above glass transition temperature. Mechanical engineering [physics.class-ph]. Normandie Université; Ecole polytechnique (Montréal, Canada), 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019NORMIR29⟩. ⟨tel-02952096⟩

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