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"Influence de la ventilation naturelle dans l'évolution de l'architecture tropicale". "Évaluation de cette influence au travers un regard d'architecte et d'urbaniste exerçant à La Réunion"

Abstract : This thesis proposes an approach based on the study of the influence of natural ventilation in the evolution of tropical architecture, past, present and future. This work starts from the observations related to the energy crisis and its consequences, global warming and the excessive use of air conditioning. It focuses on the tropical environment, which is experiencing rapid demographic, economic and therefore energy growth. First, it answers the question: Could a common, humid tropical climate have produced original and common architectural typologies, despite a strong geographical and temporal dispersion, at a time when the physics of buildings was not in use? In a second step, we tried to characterize thermal comfort and by which devices (architectural and technical) it is obtained for a traditional representative Reunionese "hut". Thirdly, we asked ourselves: How can we transpose these old concepts into contemporary projects, respecting which principles, with which tools and to obtain which results? This is based on an evaluation of two case studies, L'Ilet du Centre and Collège Bouéni, the tools used, their context of use and the efficiency of these devices. Finally, we have recently become aware of the need for a change of scale. Through a case study, we studied the ZAC Cœur de ville de La Possession, how to propose the transcription and ensure the sustainability of the natural ventilation chain, studied in the first three parts, in order to make the concept of a wind city applicable, enforceable, and therefore reproducible. Results: In terms of results, the study of these examples showed the importance of natural ventilation in the tropical zone, the impact on built forms, the solutions allowing comfort to be obtained in a traditional Reunionese hut, the role of the distant and nearby context, the risk of dysfunction in the event of modification of it, the interest of the appropriate use of new design tools, including aerothermal engineering and their adaptation to the geographical, climatic and programming context. We then proposed to ensure the sustainability of these devices on a building scale by moving to an urban scale. This thesis work made it possible in particular to make proposals for the regulatory transposition of these rules into the PLU. To this end, we have established constructability rules in the Cœur de ville project of La Possession, which preserves the potential for natural ventilation of buildings in the urban fabric through an integrated airflow engineering approach. The regulatory transposition of these rules into the PLU has finally made it possible to define a right to natural ventilation. This is a first applied example of regulatory wind energy planning while highlighting the need for rigorous operational monitoring to ensure its complete success.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, September 29, 2020 - 9:06:09 AM
Last modification on : Friday, October 23, 2020 - 4:43:45 PM


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  • HAL Id : tel-02951850, version 1


Antoine Perrau. "Influence de la ventilation naturelle dans l'évolution de l'architecture tropicale". "Évaluation de cette influence au travers un regard d'architecte et d'urbaniste exerçant à La Réunion". Science des matériaux [cond-mat.mtrl-sci]. Université de la Réunion, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LARE0045⟩. ⟨tel-02951850⟩



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