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Etude in vivo du rôle potentiel de la phospholipase A2 de groupe IIA humaine dans le paludisme : Caractérisation de la physiopathologie de l'infection à Plasmodium chabaudi chez la souris C57BL/6 transgénique pour l'enzyme

Abstract : Malaria is a tropical disease caused by a parasite of the Plasmodium genus. High levels of circulating human group IIA secreted phospholipase A2 (hGIIA) have been reported in malaria patients. The enzyme is well known for its bactericidal and pro-inflammatory actions. However, so far its role in malaria is unknown. In order to address the in vivo role of hGIIA in malaria, we performed a hematological, histopathological and immunohistochemical characterization of C57BL/6 hGIIA transgenic mice (Tg+ mice) infected with P. chabaudi chabaudi (864VD strain), a murine Plasmodium species and strain which causes non-lethal chronic malaria. Infected Tg+ mice present a 27% reduction of parasitaemia at the peak of infection (D14 post-inoculation, p.i.) compared to infected non-transgenic littermates (Tg- mice). Intraperitoneal injection of recombinant hGIIA at D12, D13 and D14 p.i. (0.125 mg/kg twice a day) into P. chabaudi 864VD-infected WT C57BL/6 mice leads to a 19% reduction of the parasitaemia at D14 p.i., demonstrating the direct and acute role of hGIIA in lowering parasite population and presumably ruling out a potential effect linked to chronic overexpression of hGIIA in Tg+ mice. Hematological data show a durable anemia in Tg+ mice compared to Tg- mice during the infection and an important increase of leucocytes, especially of polynuclear neutrophils. The parasitized Tg+ mouse also presents a higher activation of lymphocytes and a specific activation of monocyte cells at the pic of crisis. In the infected Tg- mouse, histological data show a better histopathological recovery in the liver and B cells hyperplasia in the spleen, whereas the infected Tg+ mouse presents late hepatic injuries and splenic extra-medullar hematopoiesis. RT-qPCR analyses suggest that hGIIA mRNA increases at the pic of infection in the liver of infected Tg+ mice, but decreases in spleen and blood. Intraperitoneal injection of recombinant hGIIA at the patent phase is without effect on parasitaemia, which suggests that later infection events are needed for the enzyme antiparasitic activity. Involvement of oxidized-lipoproteins as potential hGIIA substrates, based on in vitro studies, is discussed. In conclusion, our studies allowed us to elaborate a larger picture of the infection of Plasmodium in the mice expressing hGIIA and open new perspectives in the analysis of the role of the enzyme in malaria pathophysiology.
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Mélanie Dacheux. Etude in vivo du rôle potentiel de la phospholipase A2 de groupe IIA humaine dans le paludisme : Caractérisation de la physiopathologie de l'infection à Plasmodium chabaudi chez la souris C57BL/6 transgénique pour l'enzyme. Maladies infectieuses. Museum national d'histoire naturelle - MNHN PARIS, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018MNHN0007⟩. ⟨tel-02951818⟩

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