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Phosphoinositides et contrôle de la polarité cellulaire : régulations croisées entre la PIP5K Skittles et les protéines de polarité PAR1 et PAR3

Abstract : Cell polarity is a fundamental process that controls cell’s functional and physiological specificities. This process relies on membranous compartments differently composed both on proteins and on phosphatidyl-inositols (PIs). Indeed, through their asymmetric localization, polarity proteins, such as the PAR proteins, are essentials to establish and maintain polarity of the cells. During my PhD, I studied the interplay between the polarity proteins and the PIs. Using the Drosophila egg chamber, as a model, I aimed to characterized the upstream events that regulate the PI(4,5)P2 producing kinase (PIP5K), Skittles (SKTL), activity and localization. I also studied the downstream molecular process that link the PI(4,5)P2, SKTL and the PAR proteins in cell polarity. I contributed to the characterization of the importance of PI(4,5)P2, mainly produced by SKTL in maintaining the apical-basal polarity and during the morphogenesis of the follicle cells. The PI(4,5)P2 is ensuring PAR3 and adherens junctions but not PAR1 proper localizations. Next, through a precise quantification method, I showed that SKTL and the PI(4,5)P2, probably via vesicular traffic, were also ensuring PAR3 proper localizations (anterior accumulation and stage 9B posterior exclusion) in the oocyte. PAR3 accumulation also relies on a Dynein mediated transport and the IKKε kinase while its posterior exclusion relies on PAR1 phosphorylation. Finally, I studied SKTL post translational modifications and their relevance on cell polarity. I identified palmitoylation and phosphorylations that are regulated by the kinase PAR1 and the phosphatase PP1. SKTL phosphorylations seem to be related to its role on the vesicular traffic. Altogether these results clarify some mechanisms involving both PIs and PAR proteins in cell polarity maintaining and establishment
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Julie Jouette. Phosphoinositides et contrôle de la polarité cellulaire : régulations croisées entre la PIP5K Skittles et les protéines de polarité PAR1 et PAR3. Biologie cellulaire. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCC118⟩. ⟨tel-02951815⟩

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