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Étude de la réponse cellulaire et des Vésicules Extracellulaires produites par des macrophages primaires exposés aux particules fines (PM₂.₅)

Abstract : Air pollution is a major public health problem. In 2013, The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified air pollution and fine particle (PM₂.₅), with size lower than 2.5 µm, as carcinogenic to humans (group I). PM₂.₅ are able to penetrate deeply in lungs. When PM₂.₅ settle in pulmonary alveolar, they lead to strong inflammatory response, with inflammatory mediators ans extracellular vesicles release by infiltrating or resident immune cells. In this context, this thesis included two major aims : i) evaluate the physico-chemical characteristics of PM₂.₅ sampled in an industrial-urban site, identify their origin and study the seasonal variability of their composition ; ii) investigate the cellular response and EV produced by macrophages in response to PM₂.₅ and study EV's effects on epithelial cells. To achieve this, macrophages are exposed to PM₂.₅ collected in Dunkerque, and cellular response (oxidative stress, inflammation, polarization, miRNA) was quantified. EV released in response to PM₂.₅ exposition was isolated and characterized. Finally, epithelial cells, BEAS-2B, are exposed to EV released by exposed and non exposed macrophages to evaluate effects from this exposure (inflammation, oxidative stress, miRNA). We observed inflammation and anti-oxidant response in macrophages after PM₂.₅ exposure, as well as polarization modification. PM₂.₅ lead to increased number of EV by macrophages.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-02951813
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Submitted on : Tuesday, September 29, 2020 - 1:02:18 AM
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Amélie Heliot. Étude de la réponse cellulaire et des Vésicules Extracellulaires produites par des macrophages primaires exposés aux particules fines (PM₂.₅). Toxicologie. Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018DUNK0522⟩. ⟨tel-02951813⟩

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