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Trajectoires évolutives des populations insulaires d’Apis mellifera dans le sud-ouest de l’océan Indien : congruence des approches morphométriques et génétiques

Abstract : The honeybee subspecies found in the islands of the southwest Indian Ocean (SOOI) is Apis mellifera unicolor. The SOOI island populations are genetically structured, with hybridization patterns observed with European lines in varying proportions depending on the islands. In order to better understand the microevolutionary processes implemented between the divergences of the 10 SOOI island populations, we studied the variability and distribution of a trait with respect to the individual genetic diversity. Thus, the wing venation pattern was characterized by using geometric morphometry (Procrustes method) on more than 1400 female workers. Multivariate approaches used, allowed us to link morphological data (wing size and conformation) to genetic data (14 microsatellite markers).First, we studied an ongoing hybridization process in Mauritius and highlighted the concordance between morphogenetic and genetic variations, and then showed that the hybridization process contributed to increasing the phenotypic variability of the population. Human introductions and beekeeping have therefore strongly influenced the evolutionary trajectory of this population.In a second step, we extended our study to the characterization of honeybees throughout the SOOI zone. The results showed, not only, that these populations were morphologically and genetically structured, but also that the variability in wing conformation reflected the evolutionary history of these populations, highlighting the influence of drift, founding effects and hybridization processes on these populations. The strong congruence observed between neutral and morphometric genetic variability does not exclude other mechanisms, such as natural selection and/or phenotypic plasticity that could have influenced the evolutionary trajectory of the SOOI honeybees.
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Julien Galataud. Trajectoires évolutives des populations insulaires d’Apis mellifera dans le sud-ouest de l’océan Indien : congruence des approches morphométriques et génétiques. Biologie animale. Université de la Réunion, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LARE0042⟩. ⟨tel-02951325⟩

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