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Etude anatomique et fonctionnelle du noyau parasousthalamique chez le rongeur

Abstract : The hypothalamus is involved in a wide range of functions involving neuroendocrine, visceral, metabolic or behavioral responses. However, recent work challenges the classical boundaries of this brain region. The borders of the hypothalamus with the telencephalon are difficult to define and some networks, including the nuclei of the medial hypothalamus, recall in their organization those best described and connecting the basal telencephalon with the diencephalon. For large areas of the hypothalamus, especially the lateral hypothalamic areas (LHA), there is little data in the literature that can illustrate their integration into the same prosencephalic networks.Therefore, the objectives of our work were to analyze some of the networks between of a small nuclear complex of the posterior LHA, formed by the parasubthalamic (PSTN) and the calbindin (CbN) nuclei, and the insular cortex (INS) as well as the central amygdala nucleus (CEA), with which it shares abundant connections. Axonal tract tracing techniques have been combined with the detailed neurochemical study of some of these regions. We confirmed the bidirectional nature of the anatomical links that it maintains with the CEA, identifying a division of this nucleus (the intermediate part) which was not recognized in classical atlases. Then, we showed that this complex maintains direct, with the INS, but also indirect pathways after relay in the CEA and the neighboring regions of the substantia innominata. These networks are structurally similar to those conventionally described for the adjacent subthalamic nucleus (STN) and connected to the isocortex and the "basal nuclei" by the hyperdirect and indirect pathways respectively. This work was then supplemented by functional studies in rats, but also in mice using genetic tracing and pharmacogenetic approaches. We were able to show the role of this complex in the cognitive and interoceptive control of food intake.The interpretation of these data sheds new light on the organization of the most posterior areas of the hypothalamus including the PSTN/CbN complex but also the STN.
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Marie Barbier. Etude anatomique et fonctionnelle du noyau parasousthalamique chez le rongeur. Neurosciences [q-bio.NC]. Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019UBFCE025⟩. ⟨tel-02951096⟩

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