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Impact of emerging technologies on the cell disruption and fractionation of microalgal biomass

Abstract : This research work focuses on extraction and fractionation of bio-molecules from microalgae using physical treatments: pulsed electric fields (PEF), high voltage electrical discharges (HVED) and ultrasonication (US) techniques. In this study, three microalgae species Nannochloropsis sp., Phaeodactylum tricornutum (P. tricornutum) and Parachlorella kessleri (P. kessleri) were investigated. These species have different cell shapes, structure and intracellular contents. The effects of tested techniques on extraction of bio-molecules have been highlighted in a quantitative and qualitative analysis by evaluating the ionic components, carbohydrates, proteins, pigments and lipids. A comparative study of physical treatments (PEF, HVED and US) at the equivalent energy input for release of intracellular bio-molecules from three microalgal species allowed us to better understand the different disintegration mechanisms. For each microalga at the same energy consumption, the HVED treatment proved to be the most efficient for extraction of carbohydrates, while the US treatment for extraction of proteins and pigments. In general, the smallest efficiency was observed for the PEF treatment. However, the highest selectivity towards carbohydrates can be obtained using the mild PEF or HVED technique. The preliminary physical treatments (PEF, HVED or US) of more concentrated suspensions followed by high pressure homogenization (HPH) of diluted suspensions allowed improving the extraction efficiency and decreasing the total energy consumption. The physical pretreatments permit to reduce the mechanical pressure of the HPH and number of passes, to reach the same extraction yield. For the maximum valorisation of microalgal biomass, extraction procedure assisted by HVED treatment (40 kV/cm, 1-8 ms) followed by aqueous and non-aqueous extraction steps seems to be useful for selective extraction and fractionation of different bio-molecules from microalgae. The significant effects of HVED pre-treatment on organic solvent extraction of pigments (chlorophylls, carotenoids) and lipids were also observed.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, September 23, 2020 - 3:56:34 PM
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Rui Zhang. Impact of emerging technologies on the cell disruption and fractionation of microalgal biomass. Chemical and Process Engineering. Université de Technologie de Compiègne, 2020. English. ⟨NNT : 2020COMP2548⟩. ⟨tel-02947021⟩

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