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Écoulements forcés par gravité de fluides simples et de fluides complexes

Abstract : This thesis is an experimental work on gravity induced flows through an orifice.The first part of this manuscript deals with flows of Newtonian fluids. A recent study showed that for flows of low-viscosity fluids through an orifice the size of which is close to the capillary length, the effect of wetting is significant. Wetting conditions impact both flow rate and jet shape. During this thesis, an original method has been developed using a photosensitive resin as surface coating to vary the wetting conditions of the outer surface of the tank bottom plate continuously. Thanks to this method, it was shown that most likely the parameter monitoring the output flow rate is the static contact angle that the outgoing fluid forms on the material of this surface. It was established the conditions for the existence of a jet deformation and showed that this disturbance originates from the coupling between wetting and generation of turbulence within the orifice related to the phenomenon of vena contracta.The second part of this manuscript deals with flows of viscoelastic fluids. Drainage experiments carried out with these solutions reveal that they exhibit oscillating flow rate showing a very rich dynamic. Contrary to Newtonian fluids, in this case flows are controlled by the behaviour of the complex fluid inside the tank, and not at the outlet orifice. Two methods of visualization, flow- induced birefringence and PIV, were developed to explore the flow dynamics of wormlike micelle solutions inside the tank. These experiments show shear localisation within the wormlike micelle solutions. It is also observed that this shear zone moves inside the tank throughout the drainage process. The velocity field within the tank was measured as well, it demonstrates the complexity of the dynamics of these solutions, showing recirculation around the shear zone.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, September 22, 2020 - 5:57:12 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, September 23, 2020 - 4:13:47 AM


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  • HAL Id : tel-02946011, version 1


Lucile Favreau. Écoulements forcés par gravité de fluides simples et de fluides complexes. Matière Condensée [cond-mat]. Université de Lyon, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020LYSEN023⟩. ⟨tel-02946011⟩



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