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Contribution des stratégies de réintroduction à la conservation de la biodiversité à large échelle. Analyse des restaurations de populations d'oiseaux et de mammifères en Europe

Abstract : The impact of human activities on biological diversity is intensifying, and many studies suggest that we are entering a sixth mass extinction. Among the possible actions to halt the erosion of biodiversity, the human-mediated movements of organisms for conservation purposes, i.e. "conservation translocations", are increasingly used to restore populations. In particular, reintroductions aim to restore a viable population of a species within its indigenous range, following local population extinction. These actions often address local or national conservation needs, and their contribution to large-scale biodiversity conservation has yet to be determined. This thesis focuses on the coherence of reintroduction efforts at large scale, by questioning three aspects. The first aspect focuses on a retrospective inventory of bird and mammal reintroduction efforts in order to question the evolutionary and functional representativeness and originality of reintroduction targets. The second aspect focuses on the effectiveness of these programs. We propose a conceptual and unifying demographic framework to define success criteria for conservation translocation programs. Finally, in a final section, we explore the potential benefits of de-extinction projects by questioning their ability to restore evolutionary processes.
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Charles Thévenin. Contribution des stratégies de réintroduction à la conservation de la biodiversité à large échelle. Analyse des restaurations de populations d'oiseaux et de mammifères en Europe. Biodiversity. Sorbonne Université, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018SORUS523⟩. ⟨tel-02944928⟩

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