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Prise en compte cumulée du réchauffement climatique et des surchauffes urbaines en phase amont de conception frugale des bâtiments centrée sur le confort des occupants : des propositions méthodologiques

Abstract : While the IPCC's climate forecasts are more and more advanced and the phenomena related to the Urban Heat Island (UHI) are well understood, both are still not taken into account in the design of current buildings. How to take into account the global warming and urban overheating in buildings’ design? What are the impacts on the thermal behavior of buildings? What comfort criteria can be proposed to guide the choices of designers motivated by frugality? The first part presents how the building "sees" the climate. Currently, consulting agencies use averages over 10 or 30 years of measurements that give a weather file representative of the climate of an area, but which remove extreme conditions such as heat waves. However, these are and will increasingly constitute health risks for vulnerable people. A methodology is proposed to choose a real weather year by repositioning it in relation to the IPCC climate forecast. In the second part of the manuscript, the influence of the type of weather file used for buildings simulation on the comfort results is studied for a residential building located in the Confluence district in Lyon. This study focuses on the analysis of summer comfort, which is the major issue for adaptation to current and future climates. This part also contains methodological proposals for the analysis of health risks in indoor environments during extreme heatwave events. Finally, in the third and last part, we study the possibility of using the results of a urban microclimate tool to produce weather input for the building energy models. A chaining experiment between the CitySim and CIM tools, developed at EPFL Lausanne, is conducted on the same Confluence district in Lyon.
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Nicolas Lauzet. Prise en compte cumulée du réchauffement climatique et des surchauffes urbaines en phase amont de conception frugale des bâtiments centrée sur le confort des occupants : des propositions méthodologiques. Thermique [physics.class-ph]. Université de Bretagne Sud, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LORIS551⟩. ⟨tel-02943220⟩

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