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La maladie chronique rénale de la glycogénose de type I, des mécanismes moléculaires aux nouvelles stratégies thérapeutiques

Abstract : Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSDIa) is a rare metabolic disease caused by glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) deficiency, due to mutations on the gene encoding G6Pase catalytic subunit (G6PC). This enzyme confers to the liver, kidneys and intestine the ability to produce glucose. Thus, patients with GSDIa are unable to ensure endogenous glucose production and suffer from severe hypoglycemia during fasting in the absence of nutritional control. In addition, G6Pase deficiency causes intracellular accumulation of glucose-6 phosphate in the liver and kidneys, leading to metabolic defects and the accumulation of glycogen and lipids. Over time, most adult patients suffer from chronic kidney disease (CKD), which can progress to kidney failure, requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation. This nephropathy is characterized in particular by tubulo-interstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis, as well as by the development of cysts in the late stages. Moreover, patients develop hepatomegaly and hepatic steatosis that may progress to the development of hepatocellular adenomas or carcinomas. The aim of my thesis was to identify the molecular mechanisms involved in the establishment of renal pathology and cyst formation in GSDIa, by using mouse models where G6pc gene is specifically deleted in the kidneys (K.G6pc-/- mice). While GSDIa is a disease characterized by glycogen accumulation in the liver and kidneys, we first showed that the development of fibrosis, which causes progressive loss of kidney function, was induced by intracellular accumulation of lipids, regardless of glycogen content. The molecular mechanism probably involved is the activation of the renin angiotensin system by lipid derivatives such as diacylglycerol, which induced the expression of the profibrotic factor TGFβ1 and an epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In addition, the use of a PPARα agonist, i.e. fenofibrate, by decreasing renal lipid content, reduced the development of fibrosis and CKD evolution. Similarly, fenofibrate treatment prevented the accumulation of lipids in the liver and the development of liver damages that cause tumor development. Thus, the activation of lipid catabolism by PPARα agonists such as fenofibrate seems to be an interesting therapeutic strategy to reduce the progression of renal and hepatic diseases of GSDIa. The second part of my results suggest that the development of renal cysts in GSDI patients may be caused by an alteration of the primary cilia, a non-motile organelle that plays a key role in maintaining normal kidney structure and function. Indeed, defects in the primary cilia are involved in many polycystic kidney diseases. In summary, an increase in the length of the primary cilia was observed in the kidneys of K.G6pc-/- mice, which could be explained by a deregulation of the expression of different proteins involved in cilia structure and function, compared to control mice. We also demonstrated a metabolic reprogramming leading to a Warburg metabolism, characterized by the increased activation of aerobic glycolysis and the inhibition of mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation and lipid production in K.G6pc-/- mice. Thus, all these disorders would promote cell proliferation and cyst development, and could lead to the development of renal tumor, as recently observed in one K.G6pc-/- mouse (out of 36 studied mice). In conclusion, we have shown that, in GSDI, the accumulation of lipids in the kidneys and liver that occurs secondary to G6Pase deficiency plays a key role in the development of hepatic and renal long-term complications. In addition, the Warburg like metabolic reprogramming taking place in the GSDIa kidneys, associated with a defect in the primary cilia, could be at the origin of cysts formation and renal tumors. These new studies, by providing a better understanding of the pathophysiology of long-term complications of GSDIa, offer new perspectives on therapeutic strategies to be developed for better management of patients
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Submitted on : Friday, September 18, 2020 - 1:01:48 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, October 14, 2020 - 3:46:35 AM

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Laure Monteillet. La maladie chronique rénale de la glycogénose de type I, des mécanismes moléculaires aux nouvelles stratégies thérapeutiques. Physiologie [q-bio.TO]. Université de Lyon, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSE1140⟩. ⟨tel-02942494⟩

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