A. P. References, . Sawhney, L. B. Kimmel, G. F. Ruppenicker, and D. P. Thibodeaux, A Unique Polyester Staple-Core / Cotton-Wrap Yarn Made on a Tandem Spinning System, 1993.

A. H. Abdel-salam, G. Ge, and C. J. Simonson, Performance analysis of a membrane liquid desiccant air-conditioning system, Energy and Buildings, vol.62, pp.559-569, 2013.

A. H. Abdel-salam and C. J. Simonson, State-of-the-art in liquid desiccant air conditioning equipment and systems, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.58, pp.1152-1183, 2016.

M. Afshin, Selection of the liquid desiccant in a run-around membrane energy exchanger, 2010.

A. Åkesjö, L. Vamling, S. Sasic, L. Olausson, F. Innings et al., On the measuring of film thickness profiles and local heat transfer coefficients in falling films, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, vol.99, pp.287-296, 2018.


R. Al-waked, M. S. Nasif, and D. B. Mostafa, Enhancing the performance of energy recovery ventilators, Energy Conversion and Management, vol.171, pp.196-210, 2018.

F. R. Ameen, J. E. Coney, and C. G. Sheppard, Experimental study of warm-air defrosting of heat-pump evaporators, International Journal of Refrigeration, vol.16, pp.13-18, 1993.

A. Apelblat, R. Weintraub, and A. Tamir, Enthalpy of solution of lithium chloride and of lithium chloride monohydrate in water, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, vol.16, pp.90161-90168, 1984.

, ASTM E 96 Standard Test Methods for Water Vapor Transmission of Materials, 2013.

H. Bai, J. Zhu, Z. Chen, J. Chu, and Y. Liu, Performance evaluation of a membranebased flat-plate heat and mass exchanger used for liquid desiccant regeneration, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.139, pp.569-584, 2018.


P. Bansal, D. Fothergill, and R. Fernandes, Thermal analysis of the defrost cycle in a domestic freezer, International Journal of Refrigeration, vol.33, pp.589-599, 2010.

A. Baqir, . Sh, H. B. Mahood, M. S. Hameed, and A. N. Campbell, Heat transfer measurement in a three-phase spray column direct contact heat exchanger for utilisation in energy recovery from low-grade sources, Energy Conversion and Management, vol.126, pp.342-351, 2016.

S. Bell, Measurement Good Practice Guide No, p.41, 1999.

S. Bergero and A. Chiari, On the performances of a hybrid air-conditioning system in different climatic conditions. Energy, PRES, vol.36, pp.5261-5273, 2010.

S. Bergero and A. Chiari, Performance analysis of a liquid desiccant and membrane contactor hybrid air-conditioning system, Energy and Buildings, vol.42, 1976.

S. Bergero, A. Chiari, and C. Isetti, On the performance of a plane plate membrane contactor for air dehumidification, 2000.

D. F. Birol, The Future of Cooling, 2018.

M. A. Boles and Y. A. Cengel, Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, vol.10, p.15, 1998.

D. Bolton, The Computation of Equivalent Potential Temperature, Mon. Wea. Rev, vol.108, pp.1046-1053, 1980.

B. K. Bose, Global Warming: Energy, Environmental Pollution, and the Impact of Power Electronics, IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, vol.4, pp.6-17, 2010.

, Boundary layer thickness, 2019.

S. Bouzenada, A. N. Kaabi, L. Frainkin, T. Salmon, and A. Léonard, Experimental Comparative Study on Lithium Chloride and Calcium Chloride Desiccants, The 7th International Conference on Ambient Systems, Networks and Technologies (ANT 2016) / The 6th International Conference on Sustainable Energy Information Technology (SEIT-2016) / Affiliated Workshops 83, pp.718-725, 2016.

W. J. Bruining, A general description of flows and pressures in hollow fiber membrane modules, Chemical Engineering Science, vol.44, issue.89, p.85016, 1989.

P. Byrne, J. Miriel, and Y. Lénat, Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling -Part 2: Dynamic behaviour and two-phase thermosiphon defrosting technique, Applied Energy, vol.88, pp.3072-3078, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00719292


J. Byun, J. Lee, and C. Jeon, Frost retardation of an air-source heat pump by the hot gas bypass method, International Journal of Refrigeration, vol.31, pp.328-334, 2008.

. Canada, Heating and cooling with a heat pump, Office of Energy Efficiency, 2004.

A. Capozzoli, P. Mazzei, F. Minichiello, and D. Palma, Hybrid HVAC systems with chemical dehumidification for supermarket applications, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.26, pp.795-805, 2006.

Y. A. Çengel and M. A. Boles, Thermodynamics an engineering approach ED8 -StuDocu, 2015.

Y. Chen, N. Deng, B. Xin, W. Xing, and Z. Zhang, Structural characterization and measurement of nonwoven fabrics based on multi-focus image fusion, Measurement, vol.141, pp.356-363, 2019.

Q. Cheng and X. Zhang, Review of solar regeneration methods for liquid desiccant airconditioning system, Energy and Buildings, vol.67, pp.426-433, 2013.


R. Chengqin, J. Yi, T. Guangfa, and Z. Yianpin, A characteristic study of liquid desiccant dehumidification/regeneration processes, Solar Energy, vol.79, pp.483-494, 2005.


H. Cho, S. Cheon, and J. Jeong, Experimental analysis of dehumidification performance of counter and cross-flow liquid desiccant dehumidifiers, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.150, pp.210-223, 2019.


, Climate Change, Concentrations de CO2 dans l'Atmosphere. Elements de Prospective, 2014.

M. R. Conde, Aqueous solutions of lithium and calcium chlorides: property formulations for use in air conditioning equipment design, 2014.

M. R. Conde, Properties of aqueous solutions of lithium and calcium chlorides: formulations for use in air conditioning equipment design, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, vol.43, pp.367-382, 2004.

Y. J. Dai, R. Z. Wang, H. F. Zhang, and J. D. Yu, Use of liquid desiccant cooling to improve the performance of vapor compression air conditioning, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.21, pp.2-3, 2001.

K. Daou, R. Z. Wang, and Z. Z. Xia, Desiccant cooling air conditioning: a review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.10, pp.55-77, 2006.


R. S. Das and S. Jain, Experimental investigations on a solar assisted liquid desiccant cooling system with indirect contact dehumidifier, Solar Energy, vol.153, pp.289-300, 2017.

Y. Ding, G. Ma, Q. Chai, and Y. Jiang, Experiment investigation of reverse cycle defrosting methods on air source heat pump with TXV as the throttle regulator, International Journal of Refrigeration, vol.27, pp.671-678, 2004.


J. Dirker, J. P. Meyer, and B. W. Kohlmeyer, Local heat transfer coefficients at the inlet of an annular flow passage, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.113, pp.268-280, 2017.

, Spotlight on sea-level rise, ESA, 2018.

A. European-space,

. Eurima--u-values-in-europe,

P. Evans, How Cooling Towers work. The Engineering Mindset, 2016.

H. M. Factor and G. Grossman, A packed bed dehumidifier/regenerator for solar air conditioning with liquid desiccants, Solar Energy, vol.24, pp.541-550, 1980.

, , pp.90353-90362

I. Farrance, Uncertainty in Measurement: A Review of Monte Carlo Simulation Using Microsoft Excel for the Calculation of Uncertainties Through Functional Relationships, Including Uncertainties in Empirically Derived Constants, The Clinical biochemist. Reviews / Australian Association of Clinical Biochemists, vol.35, p.37, 2014.

P. H. Feron and A. E. Jansen, CO2 separation with polyolefin membrane contactors and dedicated absorption liquids: performances and prospects, Separation and Purification Technology, vol.27, pp.207-213, 2002.

K. F. Fong, C. K. Lee, T. T. Chow, and A. M. Fong, Investigation on solar hybrid desiccant cooling system for commercial premises with high latent cooling load in subtropical Hong Kong, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.31, pp.3393-3401, 2011.

H. Fu and X. Liu, Review of the impact of liquid desiccant dehumidification on indoor air quality, Building and Environment, vol.116, pp.158-172, 2017.


M. Furukawa, Practical expressions for thermodynamic and transport properties of commonly used fluids, Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, 1991.

A. Gabelman and S. Hwang, Hollow fiber membrane contactors, Journal of Membrane Science, vol.159, pp.61-106, 1999.

F. Ge, X. Guo, Z. Hu, and Y. Chu, Energy savings potential of a desiccant assisted hybrid air source heat pump system for residential building in hot summer and cold winter zone in China, Energy and Buildings, vol.43, pp.3521-3527, 2011.


G. Ge, D. Ghadiri-moghaddam, A. H. Abdel-salam, R. W. Besant, and C. J. Simonson, Comparison of experimental data and a model for heat and mass transfer performance of a liquid-to-air membrane energy exchanger (LAMEE) when used for air dehumidification and salt solution regeneration, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.68, pp.119-131, 2014.

D. Ghadiri-moghaddam, A. Oghabi, G. Ge, R. W. Besant, and C. J. Simonson, Numerical model of a small-scale liquid-to-air membrane energy exchanger: Parametric study of membrane resistance and air side convective heat transfer coefficient, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.61, pp.245-258, 2013.


K. Gluesenkamp and R. Radermacher, 11 -Heat-activated cooling technologies for small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) applications, pp.262-306, 2011.


D. P. Griffin, , 2017.

G. Couto, P. R. Carreteiro, J. De-oliveir, and S. P. , Monte Carlo Simulations Applied to Uncertainty in Measurement, 2013.

A. Gurubalan, M. P. Maiya, and S. Tiwari, Performance characterization of membrane dehumidifier with desiccants in flat-plate arrangement, Energy and Buildings, vol.156, pp.151-162, 2017.

N. Hall, , 2015.

N. Hoffenbecker, S. A. Klein, and D. T. Reindl, Hot gas defrost model development and validation, International Journal of Refrigeration, vol.28, pp.605-615, 2005.


J. P. Holman, Heat transfer, 1989.

M. Holtz, S. R. Heil, and A. Sacco, Temperature-dependent self-diffusion coefficients of water and six selected molecular liquids for calibration in accurate 1H NMR PFG measurements -Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2000.

S. Huang, Heat and mass transfer in a quasi-counter flow parallel-plate membranebased absorption heat pump (QPMAHP), Journal of Membrane Science, vol.496, pp.39-47, 2015.

S. Huang, M. Yang, Y. Hong, and W. Ye, Performance correlations of an adjacently internally-cooled membrane contactor applied for liquid desiccant air dehumidification, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.129, pp.1660-1669, 2018.


S. Huang, M. Yang, and X. Yang, Performance analysis of a quasi-counter flow parallel-plate membrane contactor used for liquid desiccant air dehumidification, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.63, pp.323-332, 2014.


S. Huang and L. Zhang, Researches and trends in membrane-based liquid desiccant air dehumidification, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.28, pp.425-440, 2013.

S. Huang, L. Zhang, K. Tang, and L. Pei, Fluid flow and heat mass transfer in membrane parallel-plates channels used for liquid desiccant air dehumidification, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.55, pp.2571-2580, 2012.

S. Huang, L. Zhang, and M. Yang, Conjugate heat and mass transfer in membrane parallel-plates ducts for liquid desiccant air dehumidification: Effects of the developing entrances, Journal of Membrane Science, vol.437, pp.82-89, 2013.


S. Huang, Z. Zhong, and M. Yang, Conjugate heat and mass transfer in an internallycooled membrane-based liquid desiccant dehumidifier (IMLDD), Journal of Membrane Science, vol.508, pp.73-83, 2016.

Y. J. Hyun, J. H. Hyun, W. G. Chun, and Y. H. Kang, An experimental investigation into the operation of a direct contact heat exchanger for solar exploitation, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.32, pp.425-434, 2005.


, Global Energy and CO2 Status, IEA, 2018.

F. P. Incropera, Natural Convection, Fundementals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 2007.

F. P. Incropera and D. P. Dewitt, Introduction to Heat Transfer, 1996.

F. P. Incropera, D. P. Dewitt, T. L. Bergman, and A. S. Lavine, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer -6th Edition, International Energy Agency and the United Nations Environment Program, 2007.

, Global Status Report -Towards a zero-emission, efficient and resilient buildings and construction sector

, ISO 2528 Sheet materials -Determination of water vapour transmission rate -Gravimetric (dish) method., 1995. . International Organization for Standardization

H. Jafarian, H. Sayyaadi, and F. Torabi, Numerical modeling and comparative study of different membrane-based liquid desiccant dehumidifiers, Energy Conversion and Management, vol.184, pp.735-747, 2019.

D. B. Jani, M. Mishra, and P. K. Sahoo, Solid desiccant air conditioning -A state of the art review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.60, 2016.

D. W. Johnson, C. Yavuzturk, and J. Pruis, Analysis of heat and mass transfer phenomena in hollow fiber membranes used for evaporative cooling, Journal of Membrane Science, vol.227, pp.159-171, 2003.

J. W. Lstiburek, It's All Relative. Magic and Mystery of the Water Molecule, ASHRAE Journal, 2017.

A. Khalil, An experimental study on multi-purpose desiccant integrated vapor-compression air-conditioning system, 2012.

A. Y. Khan, Cooling and dehumidification performance analysis of internally-cooled liquid desiccant absorbers, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.18, pp.265-281, 1998.

A. Y. Khan and F. J. Sulsona, Modelling and parametric analysis of heat and mass transfer performance of refrigerant cooled liquid desiccant absorbers, International Journal of Energy Research, vol.22, pp.813-832, 1998.

K. R. Kistler and E. L. Cussler, Membrane Modules for Building Ventilation. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Process and Product Development, vol.80, pp.53-64, 2002.

R. Kovats and C. Butler, Global health and environmental change: linking research and policy, 2012.

M. Larson, C. Simonson, R. Besant, and P. Gibson, The elastic and moisture transfer properties of polyethylene and polypropylene membranes for use in liquid-to-air energy exchangers, Journal of Membrane Science, vol.302, pp.136-149, 2007.


W. Lee and J. H. Jeong, Development of a numerical analysis model for a multi-port mini-channel heat exchanger considering a two-phase flow distribution in the header. Part I: Numerical modeling, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.138, pp.1264-1280, 2019.

W. Li and Y. Yao, Study on the method for testing the water vapor diffusion resistance of membranes, Polymer Testing, vol.69, pp.80-90, 2018.


C. H. Liang, Experiments Investigation of the Parallel-plates Enthalpy Exchangers, Energy Procedia, International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE2014, vol.61, pp.2699-2703, 2014.

J. H. Lienhard, Heat Transfer by Impingement of Circular Free-Surface Liquid Jets, 2005.

J. Lin, S. Huang, R. Wang, and K. J. Chua, Thermodynamic analysis of a hybrid membrane liquid desiccant dehumidification and dew point evaporative cooling system, Energy Conversion and Management, vol.156, pp.440-458, 2018.


X. Liu, L. A. Gabour, V. Lienhard, and J. H. , Stagnation-Point Heat Transfer During Impingement of Laminar Liquid Jets: Analysis Including Surface Tension, J. Heat Transfer, vol.115, pp.99-105, 1993.

H. B. Mahood, Direct-contact heat transfer of a single volatile liquid drop evaporation in an immiscible liquid. Desalination, European Desalination Society and Center for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), vol.222, pp.656-665, 2007.

H. B. Mahood, A. N. Campbell, R. B. Thorpe, and A. O. Sharif, Heat transfer efficiency and capital cost evaluation of a three-phase direct contact heat exchanger for the utilisation of low-grade energy sources, Energy Conversion and Management, vol.106, pp.101-109, 2015.

M. J. Mcpherson, Subsurface Ventilation and Environmental Engineering, in: Subsurface Ventilation Engineering, p.834, 1993.

A. F. Mills, Heat and Mass Transfer, 1995.

Y. Min, Y. Chen, and H. Yang, Numerical study on indirect evaporative coolers considering condensation: A thorough comparison between cross flow and counter flow, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.131, pp.472-486, 2019.

S. Misha, S. Mat, M. H. Ruslan, and K. Sopian, Review of solid/liquid desiccant in the drying applications and its regeneration methods, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.16, pp.4686-4707, 2012.

A. Mohammad, . Th, S. B. Mat, K. Sopian, and A. A. Al-abidi, Review: Survey of the control strategy of liquid desiccant systems, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.58, pp.250-258, 2016.

A. Mohammad, . Th, S. B. Mat, M. Y. Sulaiman, K. Sopian et al., Survey of liquid desiccant dehumidification system based on integrated vapor compression technology for building applications, Energy and Buildings, vol.62, pp.1-14, 2013.

E. Monteiro, R. Almeida, and A. Rouboa, Finite Volume Method Analysis of Heat Transfer in Multiblock Grid during Solidification. Heat Transfer -Mathematical Modelling, Numerical Methods and Information Technology, 2011.

P. Mukhopadhyaya, M. K. Kumaran, and J. Lackey, Use of the modified cup method to determine temperature dependency of water vapor transmission properties of building materials, Journal of Testing and Evaluation, vol.33, pp.316-322, 2005.

B. Murphy, Terms of Confusion Part 2 Permeability Test Methods. Sherwin-Williams Waterblog, 2010.

R. Mustapha, K. E. Khoury, and A. Zoughaib, A Hybrid no Frost Refrigeration System Using a Membrane Based Desiccant System, Presented at the 30th International Conference on Efficiency, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01561415

R. Namvar, G. Ge, C. J. Simonson, and R. W. Besant, Transient heat and moisture transfer characteristics of a liquid-to-air membrane energy exchanger (LAMEE) model verification and extrapolation, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.66, pp.757-771, 2013.

J. Nie, Z. Li, W. Hu, L. Fang, and Q. Zhang, Theoretical modelling and experimental study of air thermal conditioning process of a heat pump assisted solid desiccant cooling system, Energy and Buildings, vol.153, pp.31-40, 2017.


K. K. Nielsen, K. Engelbrecht, and C. R. Bahl, The influence of flow maldistribution on the performance of inhomogeneous parallel plate heat exchangers, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.60, pp.432-439, 2013.


X. Niu, F. Xiao, and G. Ge, Performance analysis of liquid desiccant based airconditioning system under variable fresh air ratios, Energy and Buildings, vol.42, pp.2457-2464, 2010.

U. D. Noaa and C. Of, ESRL Global Monitoring Division -Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network, 2019.

T. Nomura, M. Tsubota, A. Sagara, N. Okinaka, and T. Akiyama, Performance analysis of heat storage of direct-contact heat exchanger with phase-change material, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.58, pp.108-113, 2013.


P. Onsekizoglu, Membrane Distillation: Principle, Advances, Limitations and Future Prospects in Food Industry, 2012.

A. K. Pabby and A. M. Sastre, State-of-the-art review on hollow fibre contactor technology and membrane-based extraction processes, Journal of Membrane Science, vol.430, pp.263-303, 2013.

R. Qi and L. Lu, Energy consumption and optimization of internally cooled/heated liquid desiccant air-conditioning system: A case study in Hong Kong, Energy, vol.73, pp.801-808, 2014.

C. K. Qin and G. Schmitz, Engine-driven desiccant-assisted hybrid air-conditioning system, 2006.

M. M. Rafique, P. Gandhidasan, and H. M. Bahaidarah, Liquid desiccant materials and dehumidifiers -A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.56, pp.179-195, 2016.

K. S. Rambhad, P. V. Walke, and D. J. Tidke, Solid desiccant dehumidification and regeneration methods-A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.59, pp.73-83, 2016.

M. L. Ramires, C. A. Nieto-de-castro, Y. Nagasaka, A. Nagashima, M. J. Assael et al., Standard Reference Data for the Thermal Conductivity of Water, 1995.

C. Q. Ren, M. Tu, and H. H. Wang, An analytical model for heat and mass transfer processes in internally cooled or heated liquid desiccant-air contact units, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.50, pp.3545-3555, 2007.

J. Richter and K. Stan?k, Measurements of Water Vapour Permeability -Tightness of Fibreglass Cups and Different Sealants and Comparison of ?-value of Gypsum Plaster Boards, Procedia Engineering, vol.151, pp.277-283, 2016.


H. Ritchie and M. Roser, CO? and other Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Our World in Data, 2017.

A. Royne and C. J. Dey, Effect of nozzle geometry on pressure drop and heat transfer in submerged jet arrays, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.49, pp.800-804, 2006.

J. Ruiz, C. G. Cutillas, A. S. Kaiser, M. Ballesta, B. Zamora et al., Experimental study of drift deposition from mechanical draft cooling towers in urban environments, Energy and Buildings, vol.125, pp.181-195, 2016.

S. Sabek, F. Tiss, R. Chouikh, and A. Guizani, Experimental investigation and numerical validation of total heat exchanger and membrane phenomena, Energy and Buildings, vol.133, pp.131-140, 2016.

H. Schlichting, Boundary Layer Theory BY: DR, 1960.

D. Seenivasan, V. Selladurai, and P. Senthil, Optimization of Liquid Desiccant Dehumidifier Performance Using Taguchi Method, Advances in Mechanical Engineering, vol.6, 2014.

B. Seng, C. Magniont, and S. Lorente, Characterization of a precast hemp concrete block. Part II: Hygric properties, Journal of Building Engineering, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02278728

J. Shen, Z. Qian, Z. Xing, Y. Yu, and M. Ge, A review of the defrosting methods of air source heat pumps using heat exchanger with phase change material, Energy Procedia, 2nd International Conference on Energy and Power, ICEP2018, vol.160, pp.491-498, 2018.

E. N. Sieder and G. E. Tate, Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Liquids in Tubes, Ind. Eng. Chem, vol.28, pp.1429-1435, 1936.

S. Taliaferro, Documentation and testing of nineteenth-century lime wash recipes in the united states, 2015.

E. Specht, Impinging Jet Drying, Modern Drying Technology, pp.1-26, 2014.

I. Staffell, D. Brett, N. Brandon, and A. Hawkes, A review of domestic heat pumps, Energy & Environmental Science, 2012.

D. I. Stevens, J. E. Braun, and S. A. Klein, An effectiveness model of liquid-desiccant system heat/mass exchangers, Solar Energy, vol.42, pp.449-455, 1989.

, , pp.90045-90050

, Sustainable Development Scenario [WWW Document], 2018.

P. T. Tsilingiris, Thermophysical and transport properties of humid air at temperature range between 0 and 100 °C -ScienceDirect [WWW Document, 2008.

A. Vali, G. Ge, R. W. Besant, and C. J. Simonson, Numerical modeling of fluid flow and coupled heat and mass transfer in a counter-cross-flow parallel-plate liquid-to-air membrane energy exchanger, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.89, pp.1258-1276, 2015.

A. Vali, C. J. Simonson, R. W. Besant, and G. Mahmood, Numerical model and effectiveness correlations for a run-around heat recovery system with combined counter and cross flow exchangers, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.52, pp.5827-5840, 2009.

R. Vinze, S. Chandel, M. D. Limaye, and S. V. Prabhu, Influence of jet temperature and nozzle shape on the heat transfer distribution between a smooth plate and impinging air jets, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, vol.99, pp.136-151, 2016.

Y. Wang, M. Liu, D. Liu, and K. Xu, Heat Flux Correlation for Spray Cooling in the Nonboiling Regime, Heat Transfer Engineering, vol.32, pp.1075-1081, 2011.


Z. Wang, X. Zhang, and Z. Li, Investigation on the coupled heat and mass transfer process between extremely high humidity air and liquid desiccant in the counter-flow adiabatic packed tower -ScienceDirect, 2017.

H. Wenju, J. Yiqiang, Q. Minglu, N. Long, Y. Yang et al., An experimental study on the operating performance of a novel reverse-cycle hot gas defrosting method for air source heat pumps, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.31, pp.363-369, 2011.

D. P. Wilkinson, P. K. Smith, M. Joffe, and P. A. Haines, A global perspective on energy: health effects and injustices, THE LANCET, vol.370, pp.965-978, 2007.

G. Wolf, H. Jahn, V. Pekarek, and V. Vacek, Enthalpy of dissolution of lici and LiCl·H2O in water at 25° C at low concentrations [WWW Document, 1987.

J. Woods, J. Pellegrino, E. Kozubal, S. Slayzak, and J. Burch, Modeling of a membranebased absorption heat pump, Journal of Membrane Science, vol.337, pp.113-124, 2009.

, World Employment and Social Outlook 28, World Employment and Social, 2018.

R. Wu, T. Hong, Q. Cheng, H. Zou, Y. Fan et al., Thermal modeling and comparative analysis of jet impingement liquid cooling for high power electronics, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.137, pp.42-51, 2019.


X. N. Wu, T. S. Ge, Y. J. Dai, and R. Z. Wang, Review on substrate of solid desiccant dehumidification system, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.82, pp.3236-3249, 2018.

J. L. Xia, J. Järvi, E. Nurminen, E. Peuraniemi, and M. Gasik, COOLING OF GAS BY A WATER SPRAY IN A STRAIGHT DUCT -CROSS FLOW 9, 2006.

Y. Xie, Z. Xu, and N. Mei, Evaluation of the effectiveness-NTU method for countercurrent humidifier, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.99, pp.1270-1276, 2016.

Y. Khan and A. , Sensitivity analysis and component modelling of a packed-type liquid desiccant system at partial load operating conditions, 1994.

L. Yang, Y. Yan, J. Ma, and B. Liu, Effects of inter-fiber spacing and thermal residual stress on transverse failure of fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites, Computational Materials Science, vol.68, pp.255-262, 2013.


H. Yin, Z. Yang, A. Chen, and N. Zhang, , p.7, 2012.

, Advances in Energy Studies, Biennial International Workshop, vol.37, pp.623-631

K. Yoshioka and S. Hasegawa, Heat Transfer to Falling Water Film on a Vertical Surface, Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, vol.12, pp.618-625, 2012.


B. F. Yu, Z. B. Hu, M. Liu, H. L. Yang, Q. X. Kong et al., Review of research on air-conditioning systems and indoor air quality control for human health, International Journal of Refrigeration, vol.32, pp.3-20, 2009.

L. Zhang, E. Hihara, and M. Saikawa, Combination of air-source heat pumps with liquid desiccant dehumidification of air, Energy Conversion and Management, vol.57, pp.107-116, 2012.

L. Zhang, Investigation of moisture transfer effectiveness through a hydrophilic polymer membrane with a field and laboratory emission cell, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.49, pp.1176-1184, 2006.


L. Zhang and S. Huang, Coupled heat and mass transfer in a counter flow hollow fiber membrane module for air humidification, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.54, pp.1055-1063, 2011.

L. Zhang, S. Huang, J. Chi, and L. Pei, Conjugate heat and mass transfer in a hollow fiber membrane module for liquid desiccant air dehumidification: A free surface model approach, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.55, pp.3789-3799, 2012.

L. Zhang, C. Liang, and L. Pei, Conjugate heat and mass transfer in membraneformed channels in all entry regions, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.53, pp.815-824, 2010.

L. Z. Zhang and J. L. Niu, Effectiveness Correlations for Heat and Moisture Transfer Processes in an Enthalpy Exchanger With Membrane Cores, Journal of Heat Transfer, vol.124, 2002.

L. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Wang, and H. Xiang, Synthesis and characterization of a PVA/LiCl blend membrane for air dehumidification, Journal of Membrane Science, vol.308, pp.198-206, 2008.

L. Zhang and N. Zhang, A heat pump driven and hollow fiber membrane-based liquid desiccant air dehumidification system: Modeling and experimental validation, Energy, vol.65, pp.441-451, 2014.

T. Zhang, X. Liu, and Y. Jiang, Performance optimization of heat pump driven liquid desiccant dehumidification systems, Energy and Buildings, vol.52, pp.132-144, 2012.

B. Zhao, N. Peng, C. Liang, W. F. Yong, and T. Chung, Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System, Membranes, vol.5, pp.722-738, 2015.

X. Zhao, J. M. Li, and S. B. Riffat, Numerical study of a novel counter-flow heat and mass exchanger for dew point evaporative cooling, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.28, pp.1942-1951, 2008.

X. Zhao, S. Liu, and S. B. Riffat, Comparative study of heat and mass exchanging materials for indirect evaporative cooling systems, Building and Environment, vol.43, pp.1902-1911, 2008.

F. Zhu, Xin X.), 2013. Energy and Process Optimization for the Process Industries

B. Zohuri, Heat Exchanger Types and Classifications, in: Compact Heat Exchangers, pp.19-56, 2017.