, Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, vol.15, pp.539-557


A. Ariyanto, M. J. Hornsey, and C. Gallois, Group-directed criticism in Indonesia: Role of message source and audience, Asian Journal of Social Psychology, vol.9, issue.2, pp.96-102, 2006.


A. Ariyanto, M. J. Hornsey, and C. Gallois, United we stand: Intergroup conflict moderates the intergroup sensitivity effect, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.40, issue.1, pp.169-177, 2010.

J. Arndt, J. Greenberg, T. Pyszczynski, and S. Solomon, Subliminal Exposure to Death-Related Stimuli Increases Defense of the Cultural Worldview, Psychological Science, vol.8, issue.5, pp.379-385, 1997.

A. D. Asher, Inventing a city: Cultural citizenship in ', S?ubfurt'. Social Identities, vol.18, issue.5, pp.497-520, 2012.

S. Auvigne, Drapeau français : Le retour d'un symbole après les attentats, 2015.

R. Bacque and P. Lepidi, , vol.14, 2002.

D. H. Barlow, Anxiety and Its Disorders: The Nature and Treatment of Anxiety and Panic, 2004.

B. Barnett and L. Roselle, Patriotism in the News: « Rally Round the Flag ». Electronic News, vol.2, pp.10-30, 2008.

D. Bar-tal, Patriotism as fundamental beliefs of group members, Politics & the Individual, vol.3, issue.2, pp.45-62, 1993.

D. Bar-tal and E. Staub, Patriotism in the lives of individuals and nations, 1997.

R. F. Baumeister and M. R. Leary, The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation, Psychological Bulletin, vol.117, issue.3, pp.497-529, 1995.

C. Beauchemin, C. Hamel, M. Lesné, and P. Simon, Les discriminations : Une question de minorités visibles, 2010.

H. S. Becker, Outsiders, 1966.

J. C. Becker, D. A. Butz, C. G. Sibley, F. K. Barlow, L. M. Bitacola et al., What Do National Flags Stand for? An Exploration of Associations Across 11, 2017.

, Countries. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol.48, issue.3, pp.335-352


J. C. Becker, A. Enders-comberg, U. Wagner, O. Christ, and D. A. Butz, Beware of national symbols: How flags can threaten intergroup relations, Social Psychology, vol.43, pp.3-6, 2012.

J. C. Becker, U. Wagner, and O. Christ, Consequences of the 2008 financial crisis for intergroup relations: The role of perceived threat and causal attributions, Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, vol.14, pp.871-885, 2011.


D. S. Bell, Mythscapes: Memory, mythology, and national identity, The British Journal of Sociology, vol.54, issue.1, pp.63-81, 2003.

C. Belot and B. Cautrès, Être Français : Force et diversité du sentiment d'appartenance nationale, L'individualisation des valeurs, pp.197-212, 2010.

E. Bereskin, Staging the post-conflict city: Tourism, urban change, and symbolic contestation in Belfast, 2012.

R. Bergh, N. Akrami, J. Sidanius, and C. G. Sibley, Is group membership necessary for understanding generalized prejudice? A re-evaluation of why prejudices are interrelated, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.111, issue.3, pp.367-395, 2016.


M. Berndsen and N. Gausel, When majority members exclude ethnic minorities: The impact of shame on the desire to object to immoral acts, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.45, issue.6, pp.728-741, 2015.

N. Berrod, La Marseillaise sifflée lors de Turquie-France : Une affaire d'Etat, vraiment ? Le Parisien, 2019.

J. Bethlehem, Selection Bias in Web Surveys, International Statistical Review, vol.78, issue.2, pp.161-188, 2010.

B. A. Bettencourt, K. Charlton, N. Dorr, and D. L. Hume, Status differences and in-group bias: A meta-analytic examination of the effects of status stability, status legitimacy, and group permeability, Psychological Bulletin, vol.127, issue.4, pp.520-542, 2001.


M. Biernat, T. K. Vescio, and L. S. Billings, Black sheep and expectancy violation: Integrating two models of social judgment, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.29, issue.4, pp.523-542, 1999.

M. Biernat, T. K. Vescio, and S. A. Theno, Violating American Values: A "Value Congruence" Approach to Understanding Outgroup Attitudes, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, vol.32, issue.4, pp.387-410, 1996.

M. Billig, Banal Nationalism. London, Royaume-Uni : SAGE, 1995.

M. D. Birtel and R. J. Crisp, Imagining intergroup contact is more cognitively difficult for people higher in intergroup anxiety but this does not detract from its effectiveness. research. L'Année Psychologique, vol.105, pp.273-305, 2012.


M. B. Brewer, In-group bias in the minimal intergroup situation: A cognitivemotivational analysis, Psychological Bulletin, vol.86, issue.2, pp.307-324, 1979.


M. B. Brewer, The Psychology of Prejudice: Ingroup Love and Outgroup Hate, Journal of Social Issues, vol.55, issue.3, pp.429-444, 1999.


M. B. Brewer, Ingroup identification and intergroup conflict: When does ingroup love become outgroup hate?, Social identity, intergroup conflict, and conflict reduction, pp.17-41, 2001.

M. B. Brewer, Intergroup discrimination: Ingroup love or outgroup hate, 2017.

&. F. Sibley and . Barlow, The Cambridge handbook of the psychology of prejudice, pp.90-110

L. Brown, S. Richards, and I. Jones, Sojourner perceptions of the St George Cross flag during the FIFA 2010 World Cup: A symbol of carnival or menace?, International Review for the Sociology of Sport, vol.49, issue.1, pp.102-120, 2014.


R. J. Brown, The social dimension: European developments in social psychology, Tajfel (Éd.), pp.603-623, 1984.

M. Bruter, Winning Hearts and Minds for Europe: The Impact of News and Symbols on Civic and Cultural European Identity, Comparative Political Studies, vol.36, issue.10, pp.1148-1179, 2003.

D. Bryan, Parades, flags, carnivals, and riots: Public space, contestation, and transformation in Northern Ireland. Peace and Conflict, Journal of Peace Psychology, vol.21, issue.4, pp.565-573, 2015.

D. A. Butz, Implications of national symbols for majority and minority group members' academic performance: Examining potential mediators, p.307, 2007.

, Marinthe Gaëlle -Approche psycho-sociale des dégradations de symboles nationaux -2020

M. R. Dadds, D. H. Bovbjerg, W. H. Redd, and T. R. Cutmore, Imagery in human classical conditioning, Psychological Bulletin, vol.122, issue.1, pp.89-103, 1997.


M. Dambrun, Dominance sociale et préjugés : La régulation sociale des cognitions sociales des cognitions intergroupes, 2001.

M. Dambrun, S. Guimond, and N. Michinov, Les composantes automatique et contrôlée des préjugés ethniques. = Automatic and controlled components of ethnic prejudice, vol.16, pp.71-96, 2003.

E. Davidov, Nationalism and Constructive Patriotism: A Longitudinal Test of Comparability in 22 Countries with the ISSP, International Journal of Public Opinion Research, vol.23, issue.1, pp.88-103, 2011.

E. Delbecque and S. Richard, L'identité nationale, tout le monde en parle, mais qu'est-ce que c'est ? Le Figaro, 2016.

X. Demagny, Trump, Obama, May, Garou, Mbappé : Les réactions dans le monde après l'incendie de, 2019.

T. C. Demarco and A. Newheiser, Coping With Group Members Who Insult the In-Group, Social Psychological and Personality Science, vol.9, issue.2, pp.234-244, 2018.


M. Depuiset and F. Butera, The stability of patriotism in the face of variation in national laws, Psychologica Belgica, vol.43, issue.1-2, pp.123-138, 2003.

M. Depuiset and F. Butera, On the relevance of studying patriotism and normative conflict in changing attitudes towards immigrants. Psicología Política, vol.30, pp.71-84, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01862526

T. Devos and M. R. Banaji, American = White?, Journal of personality and social psychology, vol.88, issue.3, pp.447-466, 2005.

R. A. Dezalia and S. L. Moeschberger, The function of symbols that bind and divide, 2014.

S. L. Dans, . A. Moeschberger-&-r, and . Dezalia, Symbols that bind, symbols that divide: The semiotics of peace and conflict, pp.1-12

P. H. Ditto and S. P. Koleva, Moral Empathy Gaps and the American Culture War, Emotion Review, vol.3, issue.3, pp.331-332, 2011.

S. Does and A. Mentovich, Rooting for the top dog: How social dominance motives shape group preference in intergroup competition, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, vol.62, pp.24-29, 2016.

W. Doise, L'explication en psychologie sociale, 1982.

J. Dollard, N. E. Miller, L. W. Doob, O. H. Mowrer, and R. R. Sears, Frustration and aggression, 1939.

B. Dont, Disney accusé d'appropriation culturelle pour l'expression « Hakuna Matata, 2018.

B. Doosje, R. Spears, N. Ellemers, and W. Koomen, Perceived Group Variability in Intergroup Relations: The Distinctive Role of Social Identity, European Review of Social Psychology, vol.10, issue.1, pp.41-74, 1999.

B. Doosje, K. Van-den-bos, A. Loseman, A. R. Feddes, and L. Mann, My in-group is superior!': Susceptibility for radical right-wing attitudes and behaviors in Dutch youth, Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, vol.5, issue.3, pp.253-268, 2012.


J. F. Dovidio, S. L. Gaertner, M. John, S. Halabi, T. Saguy et al., Majority and minority perspectives in intergroup relations: The role of contact, group representations, threat, and trust in intergroup conflict and reconciliation, The social psychology of intergroup reconciliation, pp.227-253, 2008.


J. F. Dovidio, K. Kawakami, and K. R. Beach, Implicit and Explicit Attitudes: Examination of the Relationship between Measures of Intergroup Bias, 2008.

S. Eidelman, P. J. Silvia, and M. Biernat, Responding to Deviance: Target Exclusion and Differential Devaluation, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol.32, issue.9, pp.1153-1164, 2006.


. Entre-le-maroc and F. La, Le Monde arabe, 2018.

V. M. Esses, L. M. Jackson, and T. L. Armstrong, Intergroup competition and attitudes toward immigrants and immigration: An instrumental model of group conflict, Journal of Social Issues, vol.54, issue.4, pp.699-724, 1998.

V. M. Esses, L. M. Jackson, J. F. Dovidio, and G. Hodson, Instrumental Relations Among Groups: Group Competition, Conflict, and Prejudice, 2005.

A. Rudman, On the nature of prejudice: Fifty years after Allport, pp.227-243

M. A. Malden,

J. M. Falomir-pichastor, A. Chatard, L. Selimbegovic, P. N. Konan, and G. Mugny, , 2013.

, Conformity and counter-conformity to anti-discrimination norms: The moderating effect of attitude toward foreigners and perceived in-group threat, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol.43, issue.2, pp.206-215

J. M. Falomir-pichastor and N. S. Frederic, The dark side of heterogeneous ingroup identities: National identification, perceived threat, and prejudice against immigrants, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, vol.49, issue.1, pp.72-79, 2013.


J. M. Falomir-pichastor, F. Gabarrot, and G. Mugny, Group motives in threatening contexts: When a loyalty conflict paradoxically reduces the influence of an antidiscrimination ingroup norm, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.39, issue.2, pp.196-206, 2009.


J. M. Falomir-pichastor and G. Mugny, Understanding attitudes towards immigrants: The double edge of heterogenous national identities and egalitarian norms on attitudes towards immigrants, Psicología Política, vol.46, pp.11-36, 2013.

, Marinthe Gaëlle -Approche psycho-sociale des dégradations de symboles nationaux -2020

N. Fasel, E. G. Green, and O. Sarrasin, Facing cultural diversity: Anti-immigrant attitudes in Europe, European Psychologist, vol.18, issue.4, pp.253-262, 2013.


F. Faul, E. Erdfelder, A. Lang, and A. Buchner, G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences, Behavior Research Methods, vol.39, issue.2, pp.175-191, 2007.

C. M. Federico, A. Golec, and J. L. Dial, The Relationship Between the Need for Closure and Support for Military Action Against Iraq: Moderating Effects of National Attachment, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol.31, issue.5, pp.621-632, 2005.


M. Félonneau, L. Lannegrand-willems, and M. Becker, Spatialisation identitaire chez les adolescents et les jeunes adultes : Le cas du Pays Basque français, vol.80, pp.59-71, 2008.

M. Félonneau, L. Lannegrand-willems, M. Becker, and A. Parant, The Dynamics of Sociospatial Identity: Comparing Adolescents and Young Adults in Two French Regions, Applied Psychology, vol.62, issue.4, pp.619-639, 2013.

C. K. Ferguson and H. H. Kelley, Significant factors in overevaluation of own-group's product, The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, vol.69, issue.2, pp.223-228, 1964.


M. J. Ferguson, T. J. Carter, and R. R. Hassin, Social and psychological bases of ideology and system justification, pp.3-23, 2009.

M. J. Ferguson and R. R. Hassin, On the Automatic Association Between America and Aggression for News Watchers, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol.33, issue.12, pp.1632-1647, 2007.

L. Festinger, A Theory of Social Comparison Processes, Human Relations, vol.7, issue.2, pp.117-140, 1954.

K. Fousiani, V. Yzerbyt, N. Kteily, and S. Demoulin, Justice reactions to deviant ingroup members: Ingroup identity threat motivates utilitarian punishments, British Journal of Social Psychology, 2019.

J. E. Fox and C. Miller-idriss, Everyday nationhood. Ethnicities, vol.8, pp.536-563, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00571904


J. E. Fox and C. Miller-idriss, The `here and now' of everyday nationhood, Ethnicities, vol.8, issue.4, pp.573-576, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00571900

F. Fozdar, B. Spittles, and L. K. Hartley, Australia Day, flags on cars and Australian nationalism, Journal of Sociology, vol.51, issue.2, pp.317-336, 2015.


F. Gabarrot and J. M. Falomir-pichastor, Ingroup Identification Increases Differentiation in Response to Egalitarian Ingroup Norm under Distinctiveness Threat, International Review of Social Psychology, vol.30, issue.1, 2017.

S. L. Gaertner, M. C. Rust, J. F. Dovidio, B. A. Bachman, and P. A. Anastasio, The Contact Hypothesis: The Role of a Common Ingroup Identity on Reducing Intergroup Bias, 1994.

, , vol.25, pp.224-249

M. T. Gailliot, T. F. Stillman, B. J. Schmeichel, J. K. Maner, and E. A. Plant, Mortality salience increases adherence to salient norms and values, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol.34, issue.7, pp.993-1003, 2008.

W. Gao, M. Chen, and Y. Li, Descriptive norms influence reactions to anger-related moral events, Asian Journal of Social Psychology, vol.19, issue.1, pp.31-39, 2016.


S. M. Garcia, K. Weaver, G. B. Moskowitz, and J. M. Darley, Crowded minds: The implicit bystander effect, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.83, issue.4, pp.843-853, 2002.


J. Gatto, M. Dambrun, C. Kerbrat, and P. De-oliveira, Prejudice in the police: On the processes underlying the effects of selection and group socialisation, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.40, issue.2, pp.252-269, 2010.

N. Gauthier, Ce qui se dit à l'international en général? et chez les musulmans en particulier, 2019.

C. Gelpi, L. Roselle, and B. Barnett, Polarizing Patriots: Divergent Responses to Patriotic Imagery in News Coverage of Terrorism, American Behavioral Scientist, vol.57, issue.1, pp.8-45, 2013.


C. Germond, Partenaires de raison ? Le couple France-Allemagne et l'unification de l'Europe (1963-1969), 2014.

A. Gilboa and E. Bodner, What are your thoughts when the national anthem is playing? An empirical exploration, Psychology of Music, vol.37, issue.4, pp.459-484, 2009.


A. Golec-de-zavala, Collective narcissism and intergroup hostility: The dark side of 'ingroup love, Social and Personality Psychology Compass, vol.5, issue.6, pp.309-320, 2011.


A. Golec-de-zavala, A. Cichocka, and M. Bilewicz, The Paradox of In-Group Love: Differentiating Collective Narcissism Advances Understanding of the Relationship Between In-Group and Out-Group Attitudes: The Paradox of In-Group Love, Journal of Personality, vol.81, issue.1, pp.16-28, 2013.

A. Golec-de-zavala, A. Cichocka, R. Eidelson, and N. Jayawickreme, Collective narcissism and its social consequences, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.97, issue.6, pp.1074-1096, 2009.

A. Golec-de-zavala, A. Cichocka, and I. Iskra-golec, Collective narcissism moderates the effect of in-group image threat on intergroup hostility, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.104, issue.6, pp.1019-1039, 2013.

A. G. Golec-de-zavala, . De, K. Dyduch-hazar, and D. Lantos, Collective Narcissism: Political Consequences of Investing Self-Worth in the Ingroup's Image, vol.40, pp.37-74, 2019.

A. Golec-de-zavala, C. M. Federico, A. Cislak, and J. L. Dial, Need for closure, national attachment, and attitudes toward international conflict: Distinguishing the roles of patriotism and nationalism, Advances in psychology research, vol.33, pp.231-251, 2005.

E. Goode and N. Ben-yehuda, Moral panics: The social construction of deviance, 2009.

J. P. Goode and D. R. Stroup, Everyday Nationalism: Constructivism for the Masses, 2015.

, Social Science Quarterly, vol.96, issue.3, pp.717-739

G. P. Goodwin and J. M. Darley, The psychology of meta-ethics: Exploring objectivism, 2008.

, Cognition, vol.106, issue.3, pp.1339-1366

G. P. Goodwin and J. M. Darley, Why are some moral beliefs perceived to be more objective than others, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, vol.48, issue.1, pp.250-256, 2012.


S. D. Gosling, S. Vazire, S. Srivastava, and O. P. John, Should We Trust Web-Based Studies? A Comparative Analysis of Six Preconceptions About Internet Questionnaires, 2004.

, American Psychologist, vol.59, issue.2, pp.93-104

J. Graham, J. Haidt, and B. A. Nosek, Liberals and conservatives rely on different sets of moral foundations, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.96, issue.5, pp.1029-1046, 2009.


J. Graham, B. A. Nosek, J. Haidt, R. Iyer, S. Koleva et al., Mapping the moral domain, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.101, issue.2, pp.366-385, 2011.


E. G. Green, O. Sarrasin, R. Baur, and N. Fasel, From stigmatized immigrants to radical right voting: A multilevel study on the role of threat and contact, Political Psychology, vol.37, issue.4, pp.465-480, 2016.

K. H. Greenaway and T. Cruwys, The source model of group threat: Responding to internal and external threats, American Psychologist, vol.74, issue.2, pp.218-231, 2018.


J. Greenberg, J. Porteus, L. Simon, and T. Pyszczynski, Evidence of a terror management function of cultural icons: The effects of mortality salience on the inappropriate use of cherished cultural symbols, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol.21, issue.11, pp.1221-1228, 1995.

J. Greenberg, T. Pyszczynski, and S. Solomon, The Causes and Consequences of a Need for Self-Esteem: A Terror Management Theory, Public Self and Private Self, pp.189-212, 1986.

J. Greenberg, T. Pyszczynski, S. Solomon, L. Simon, and M. Breus, Role of consciousness and accessibility of death-related thoughts in mortality salience effects, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.67, issue.4, pp.627-637, 1994.


J. Greenberg, L. Simon, T. Pyszczynski, S. Solomon, and D. Chatel, Terror management and tolerance: Does mortality salience always intensify negative reactions to others who threaten one's worldview?, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.63, issue.2, pp.212-220, 1992.

A. G. Greenwald, D. E. Mcghee, and J. L. Schwartz, Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association test, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.74, issue.6, pp.1464-1480, 1998.

G. News, Trump attacks NFL anthem protesters, 2017.

N. Guéguen, A. Martin, and J. Stefan, Holding your flag: The effects of exposure to a regional symbol on people's behavior, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.47, issue.5, pp.539-552, 2017.

S. Guimond, R. J. Crisp, P. De-oliveira, R. Kamiejski, N. Kteily et al., , 2013.

, Diversity policy, social dominance, and intergroup relations: Predicting prejudice in

R. R. Hassin, M. J. Ferguson, R. Kardosh, S. C. Porter, T. J. Carter et al., , 2009.

, Précis of Implicit Nationalism, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol.1167, issue.1, pp.135-145

R. R. Hassin, M. J. Ferguson, D. Shidlovski, and T. Gross, Subliminal exposure to national flags affects political thought and behavior, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.104, issue.50, pp.19757-19761, 2007.

A. F. Hayes, Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis: A Regression-Based Approach, 2013.

J. Hayes, J. Schimel, J. Arndt, and E. H. Faucher, A theoretical and empirical review of the death-thought accessibility concept in terror management research, Psychological Bulletin, vol.136, issue.5, pp.699-739, 2010.

P. C. Heaven, D. Rajab, and J. J. Ray, Patriotism, racism, and the disutility of the ethnocentrism concept, The Journal of Social Psychology, vol.125, issue.2, pp.181-185, 1985.


C. C. Helwig and A. Prencipe, Children's judgments of flags and flag-burning, Child Development, vol.70, issue.1, pp.132-143, 1999.

M. Hemesath and X. Pomponio, Cooperation and Culture: Students From China and the United States in a Prisoner's Dilemma, Cross-Cultural Research, vol.32, issue.2, pp.171-184, 1998.


E. Henderson-king, D. Henderson-king, and L. Hathaway, Group Favoritism and Support for Government Policies as a Function of Patriotic Orientation and Perceived Threat, Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale, vol.22, issue.3, pp.235-266, 2009.

M. Hewstone, M. Rubin, and H. Willis, Intergroup bias, Annual Review of Psychology, vol.53, issue.1, pp.575-604, 2002.

N. M. Hobson, J. Schroeder, J. L. Risen, D. Xygalatas, and M. Inzlicht, The Psychology of Rituals: An Integrative Review and Process-Based Framework, Personality and Social Psychology Review, vol.22, issue.3, pp.260-284, 2017.


Y. Hong, M. W. Morris, C. Chiu, and V. Benet-martínez, Multicultural minds: A dynamic constructivist approach to culture and cognition, American Psychologist, vol.55, issue.7, pp.709-720, 2000.

W. W. Hopkins, Flag Desecration as Seditious Libel, Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, vol.68, issue.4, pp.814-822, 1991.

M. J. Hornsey, Dissent and deviance in intergroup contexts, Current Opinion in Psychology, vol.11, pp.1-5, 2016.

M. J. Hornsey, P. De-bruijn, J. Creed, J. Allen, A. Ariyanto et al., Keeping it in-house: How audience affects responses to group criticism, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.35, issue.3, pp.291-312, 2005.

M. J. Hornsey, T. Grice, J. Jetten, N. Paulsen, and V. Callan, Group-Directed Criticisms and Recommendations for Change: Why Newcomers Arouse More Resistance Than Old-Timers, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol.33, issue.7, pp.1036-1048, 2007.


M. J. Hornsey and A. Imani, Criticizing Groups from the Inside and the Outside: An Identity Perspective on the, Intergroup Sensitivity Effect. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol.30, issue.3, pp.365-383, 2004.

M. J. Hornsey and J. Jetten, Not being what you claim to be: Impostors as sources of group threat, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.33, issue.5, pp.639-657, 2003.


M. J. Hornsey, T. Oppes, and A. Svensson, It's ok if we say it, but you can't': Responses to intergroup and intragroup criticism, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.32, issue.3, pp.293-307, 2002.

M. J. Hornsey, M. Trembath, and S. Gunthorpe, You can criticize because you care': Identity attachment, constructiveness, and the intergroup sensitivity effect, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.34, issue.5, pp.499-518, 2004.

E. L. Horowitz, Some Aspects of the Development of Patriotism in Children, 1940.

, Sociometry, vol.3, issue.4, pp.329-341

L. Huddy and N. Khatib, American Patriotism, National Identity, and Political Involvement, American Journal of Political Science, vol.51, issue.1, pp.63-77, 2007.


, Human Rights Watch, 2018.

, Marinthe Gaëlle -Approche psycho-sociale des dégradations de symboles nationaux -2020

P. Hutchison and D. Abrams, Ingroup identification moderates stereotype change in reaction to ingroup deviance, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.33, issue.4, pp.497-506, 2003.


P. Hutchison, D. Abrams, and G. R. De-moura, Corralling the ingroup: Deviant derogation and perception of group variability, The Journal of Social Psychology, vol.153, issue.3, pp.334-350, 2013.

P. Hutchison, D. Abrams, R. Gutierrez, and G. T. Viki, Getting rid of the bad ones: The relationship between group identification, deviant derogation, and identity maintenance, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, vol.44, issue.3, pp.874-881, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00582715


. Ifop, Les Français et le made in France, 2017.

C. Inguglia and P. Musso, In-group favouritism and out-group derogation towards national groups: Age-related differences among Italian school children, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, vol.37, issue.3, pp.385-390, 2013.


. Insee, Immigrés selon le pays de naissance, pp.4177618-4177619, 2019.

M. Ioannou, M. Hewstone, and A. Ramiah, Inducing similarities and differences in imagined contact: A mutual intergroup differentiation approach, Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, vol.20, pp.427-446, 2017.

A. Iyer, J. Jetten, and S. A. Haslam, Sugaring o'er the devil: Moral superiority and group identification help individuals downplay the implications of ingroup rule-breaking, 2012.

, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.42, issue.2, pp.141-149


, Journal of Social Psychology, vol.27, issue.6, pp.635-657, 199711.

J. Jetten, R. Spears, and A. S. Manstead, Defining dimensions of distinctiveness: Group variability makes a difference to differentiation, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.74, issue.6, pp.1481-1492, 1998.

J. Jetten, R. Spears, and T. Postmes, Intergroup Distinctiveness and Differentiation: A Meta-Analytic Integration, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.86, issue.6, pp.862-879, 2004.

J. Jetten and M. J. Wohl, The past as a determinant of the present: Historical continuity, collective angst, and opposition to immigration, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.42, issue.4, pp.442-450, 2012.

J. Jiang, Y. Kou, F. Wang, Y. Wu, Y. Li et al., Emotional reactions to scandals: When does moral character make a difference?, Asian Journal of Social Psychology, vol.14, issue.3, pp.207-216, 2011.

A. L. Johnson, M. T. Crawford, S. J. Sherman, A. M. Rutchick, D. L. Hamilton et al., A functional perspective on group memberships: Differential need fulfillment in a group typology, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, vol.42, issue.6, pp.707-719, 2006.

E. Jonas, I. Fritsche, and J. Greenberg, Currencies as cultural symbols -an existential psychological perspective on reactions of Germans toward the Euro, Journal of Economic Psychology, vol.26, issue.1, pp.129-146, 2005.

E. Jonas and J. Greenberg, Terror management and political attitudes: The influence of mortality salience on Germans' defence of the German reunification, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.34, issue.1, pp.1-9, 2004.

E. Jonas, I. Mcgregor, J. Klackl, D. Agroskin, I. Fritsche et al., , 2014.

, Threat and defense: From anxiety to approach, Advances in experimental social psychology, vol.49, pp.219-286

R. Jones and P. Merriman, Hot, banal and everyday nationalism: Bilingual road signs in Wales, Political Geography, vol.28, issue.3, pp.164-173, 2009.


N. Kervyn, H. B. Bergsieker, F. Grignard, and V. Y. Yzerbyt, An advantage of appearing mean or lazy: Amplified impressions of competence or warmth after mixed descriptions, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, vol.62, pp.17-23, 2016.


N. Kervyn, S. Fiske, and V. Yzerbyt, Forecasting the primary dimension of social perception: Symbolic and realistic threats together predict warmth in the Stereotype Content Model, Social Psychology, vol.46, issue.1, pp.36-45, 2015.

S. Khan and A. J. Lambert, Ingroup favoritism versus black sheep effects in observations of informal conversations, Basic and Applied Social Psychology, vol.20, issue.4, pp.263-269, 1998.


D. R. Kinder and D. O. Sears, Prejudice and politics: Symbolic racism versus racial threats to the good life, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.40, issue.3, pp.414-431, 1981.


S. P. Koleva, J. Graham, R. Iyer, P. H. Ditto, and J. Haidt, Tracing the threads: How five moral concerns (especially Purity) help explain culture war attitudes, Journal of Research in Personality, vol.46, issue.2, pp.184-194, 2012.

P. Kolstø, National symbols as signs of unity and division, Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol.29, issue.4, pp.676-701, 2006.

R. Kosterman and S. Feshbach, Toward a Measure of Patriotic and Nationalistic Attitudes, Political Psychology, vol.10, issue.2, 1989.

J. H. Krantz and R. Dalal, Chapter 2-Validity of Web-Based Psychological Research, 2000.

M. H. Dans and . Birnbaum, Psychological Experiments on the Internet, pp.35-60

C. A. Diego,

D. Kuchenbrandt, F. Eyssel, and S. K. Seidel, Cooperation makes it happen: Imagined intergroup cooperation enhances the positive effects of imagined contact, Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, vol.16, pp.635-647, 2013.


M. Kugler, J. T. Jost, and S. Noorbaloochi, Another Look at Moral Foundations Theory: Do Authoritarianism and Social Dominance Orientation Explain Liberal-Conservative Differences in "Moral, Intuitions? Social Justice Research, vol.27, issue.4, pp.413-431, 2014.


M. M. Kurai, Appropriation or appreciation? Implications for intergroup relations following outgroup claims on ingroup symbols, 2017.

A. Kyridis, A. Mavrikou, C. Zagkos, P. Golia, I. Vamvakidou et al., Nationalism through State-Constructed Symbols: The Case of National Anthems, The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, vol.4, issue.6, pp.1-14, 2009.

A. J. Lambert, L. D. Scherer, J. P. Schott, K. R. Olson, R. K. Andrews et al., Rally effects, threat, and attitude change: An integrative approach to understanding the role of emotion, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.98, issue.6, pp.886-903, 2010.

E. D. Lawson, Flag Preference as an Indicator of Patriotism in Israeli Children, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol.6, issue.4, pp.490-497, 1975.


E. D. Lawson, Political socialization in Israel and the West Bank, Megamot, vol.26, issue.2, pp.215-226, 1980.

L. Coadic and R. , Les contrastes bretons. Ethnologie française, vol.33, issue.3, pp.373-379, 2003.

M. Le-pen, Siffler un hymne national, en l'occurrence la Marseillaise, est toujours une honte, un affront et l'inverse des valeurs de fair-play. On attend de la FIFA qu'elle sanctionne la fédération de football turque pour le manque de respect du public turc ce soir, 2019.

, Consulté 11 août 2019, à l'adresse @MLP_officiel website

C. W. Leach, P. M. Mosquera, M. L. Vliek, and E. Hirt, Group Devaluation and Group Identification, Journal of Social Issues, vol.66, issue.3, pp.535-552, 2010.


C. W. Leach, R. Spears, N. R. Branscombe, and B. Doosje, Malicious pleasure: Schadenfreude at the suffering of another group, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.84, issue.5, pp.932-943, 2003.

, Marinthe Gaëlle -Approche psycho-sociale des dégradations de symboles nationaux -2020

C. W. Leach, M. Van-zomeren, S. Zebel, M. L. Vliek, S. F. Pennekamp et al., Group-level self-definition and self-investment: A hierarchical (multicomponent) model of in-group identification, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.95, issue.1, pp.144-165, 2008.

E. Leach, Culture and Communication: The Logic by which Symbols Are Connected. An Introduction to the Use of Structuralist Analysis in Social Anthropology, 1976.

S. A. Lehr, M. L. Ferreira, and M. R. Banaji, When outgroup negativity trumps ingroup positivity: Fans of the Boston Red Sox and New York Yankees place greater value on rival losses than own-team gains, Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, vol.22, pp.26-42, 2017.

B. Leidner, E. Castano, E. Zaiser, and R. Giner-sorolla, Ingroup Glorification, Moral Disengagement, and Justice in the Context of Collective Violence, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol.36, issue.8, pp.1115-1129, 2010.


B. Leidner, P. Kardos, and E. Castano, The effects of moral and pragmatic arguments against torture on demands for judicial reform, Political Psychology, vol.39, issue.1, pp.143-162, 2018.


B. Leidner, M. Li, and P. Kardos, Healthy and unhealthy wars: The effects of ingroupcommitted violence on physical and mental health. Peace and Conflict, Journal of Peace Psychology, vol.21, issue.3, pp.334-358, 2015.

M. S. Levendusky, Americans, not partisans: Can priming American national identity reduce affective polarization?, The Journal of Politics, vol.80, issue.1, pp.59-70, 2018.


S. Levin and J. Sidanius, Social dominance and social identity in the United States and Israel: Ingroup favoritism or outgroup derogation?, Political Psychology, vol.20, issue.1, pp.99-126, 1999.


A. C. Lewis and S. J. Sherman, Perceived entitativity and the black-sheep effect: When will we denigrate negative ingroup members?, The Journal of Social Psychology, vol.150, issue.2, pp.211-225, 2010.

, Marinthe Gaëlle -Approche psycho-sociale des dégradations de symboles nationaux -2020

J. Leyens, B. Cortes, S. Demoulin, J. F. Dovidio, S. T. Fiske et al., Emotional prejudice, essentialism, and nationalism: The 2002 Tajfel Lecture, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.33, issue.6, pp.703-717, 2003.

M. Li, B. Leidner, H. Euh, and H. Choi, The contagion of interstate violence: Reminders of historical interstate (but not intrastate) violence increase support for future violence against unrelated third-party states, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol.42, issue.8, pp.1003-1024, 2016.

Q. Li and M. B. Brewer, What Does It Mean to Be an American? Patriotism, Nationalism, and American Identity After 9/11, Political Psychology, vol.25, issue.5, pp.727-739, 2004.


L. Licata and O. Klein, Does European citizenship breed xenophobia?: European identification as a predictor of intolerance towards immigrants, Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, vol.12, issue.5, pp.323-337, 2002.

B. Lickel, D. L. Hamilton, G. Wieczorkowska, A. Lewis, S. J. Sherman et al., , 2000.

, Varieties of groups and the perception of group entitativity, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.78, issue.2, pp.223-246

T. G. Lilley, J. Best, B. E. Aguirre, and K. S. Lowney, Magnetic Imagery: War-Related Ribbons as Collective Display, Sociological Inquiry, vol.80, issue.2, pp.313-321, 2010.


J. H. Liu, C. G. Sibley, and L. Huang, History Matters: Effects of Culture-specific Symbols on Political Attitudes and Intergroup Relations: Historical Symbols, Culture, and Political Attitudes, vol.35, pp.57-79, 2014.


M. Liu and Y. Wang, Data collection mode effect on feeling thermometer questions: A comparison of face-to-face and Web surveys, Computers in Human Behavior, vol.48, pp.212-218, 2015.


A. Marcus-newhall, W. C. Pedersen, M. Carlson, and N. Miller, Displaced aggression is alive and well: A meta-analytic review, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.78, issue.4, pp.670-689, 2000.

G. Marinthe and R. Kamiejski, Déviance envers un symbole national et réactions préjudicielles. Présenté à 56ème congrès de la Société Française de

. Psychologie,

J. M. Marques, D. Abrams, and R. G. Serôdio, Being better by being right: Subjective group dynamics and derogation of in-group deviants when generic norms are undermined, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.81, issue.3, pp.436-447, 2001.


J. M. Marques, E. M. Robalo, and S. A. Rocha, Ingroup bias and the « black sheep » effect: Assessing the impact of social identification and perceived variability on group judgements, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.22, issue.4, pp.331-352, 1992.


J. M. Marques and V. Y. Yzerbyt, The black sheep effect: Judgmental extremity towards ingroup members in inter-and intra-group situations, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.18, issue.3, pp.287-292, 1988.

J. M. Marques, V. Y. Yzerbyt, and J. Leyens, The 'Black Sheep Effect': Extremity of judgments towards ingroup members as a function of group identification, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.18, issue.1, pp.1-16, 1988.

V. Martigny, Penser le nationalisme ordinaire, Raisons politiques, vol.37, pp.5-15, 2010.


A. H. Maslow, A Theory of Human Motivation, Psychological Review, vol.50, pp.370-396, 1943.


H. Mathoux, « Délire de petits blancs » & Cie : Outre l'incendie, Notre-Dame subit un déluge de récup' et de bêtise. Marianne. Consulté à l, 2019.

R. Maxwell and L. House, Evaluating the Character of People Who Insult the Nation: Implications for Immigrant Integration: Evaluating People Who Insult the Nation, Political Psychology, vol.39, issue.2, pp.325-343, 2018.

S. G. Mcfarland, On the eve of war: Authoritarianism, social dominance, and American students' attitudes toward attacking Iraq, Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, vol.31, issue.3, pp.360-367, 2005.

L. M. Mclaren, Anti-Immigrant Prejudice in Europe: Contact, Threat Perception, and Preferences for the Exclusion of Migrants, Social Forces, vol.81, issue.3, pp.909-936, 2003.


J. Meeus, B. Duriez, N. Vanbeselaere, and F. Boen, The role of national identity representation in the relation between in-group identification and out-group derogation: Ethnic versus civic representation, British Journal of Social Psychology, vol.49, issue.2, pp.305-320, 2010.

R. Meleady, R. J. Crisp, G. Hodson, and M. Earle, On the Generalization of Intergroup Contact: A Taxonomy of Transfer Effects, Current Directions in Psychological Science, vol.28, issue.5, pp.430-435, 2019.

W. B. Mendes and K. Koslov, Brittle smiles: Positive biases toward stigmatized and outgroup targets, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, vol.142, issue.3, pp.923-933, 2013.


S. A. Mendoza, S. P. Lane, and D. M. Amodio, For Members Only: Ingroup Punishment of Fairness Norm Violations in the Ultimatum Game, Social Psychological and Personality Science, vol.5, issue.6, pp.662-670, 2014.

S. Métayer, Sanctionner l'auteur d'une transgression : Étude d'une composante motivationnelle des valeurs morales, 2014.

S. Métayer and F. Pahlavan, Validation de l'adaptation française du questionnaire des principes moraux fondateurs. Revue internationale de psychologie sociale, vol.27, pp.79-107, 2014.

P. Meyerson and W. W. Tryon, Validating Internet research: A test of the psychometric equivalence of Internet and in-person samples, Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, vol.35, issue.4, pp.614-620, 2003.

, Marinthe Gaëlle -Approche psycho-sociale des dégradations de symboles nationaux -2020

B. Mullen, R. Brown, and C. Smith, Ingroup bias as a function of salience, relevance, and status: An integration, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.22, issue.2, pp.103-122, 1992.


B. Mullen, M. J. Migdal, and M. Hewstone, Crossed categorization versus simple categorization and intergroup evaluations: A meta-analysis, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.31, issue.6, pp.721-736, 2001.

K. J. Mullinix, T. J. Leeper, J. N. Druckman, and J. Freese, The Generalizability of Survey Experiments, Journal of Experimental Political Science, vol.2, issue.2, pp.109-138, 2015.


A. Mummendey, A. Klink, and R. Brown, Nationalism and patriotism: National identification and out-group rejection, British Journal of Social Psychology, vol.40, issue.2, pp.159-171, 2001.

A. Mummendey and S. Otten, Positive-Negative Asymmetry in Social Discrimination, European Review of Social Psychology, vol.9, issue.1, pp.107-143, 1998.


A. Mummendey, S. Otten, U. Berger, and T. Kessler, Positive-Negative Asymmetry in Social Discrimination: Valence of Evaluation and Salience of Categorization, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol.26, issue.10, pp.1258-1270, 2000.


A. Mummendey and H. Schreiber, Social comparison, similarity and ingroup favouritism: A replication, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.14, issue.2, pp.231-233, 1984.


C. Museux, France -Allemagne : Les éternelles retrouvailles des meilleurs ennemis, 2016.

P. R. Nail and I. Mcgregor, Conservative shift among liberals and conservatives following 9/11/01, Social Justice Research, vol.22, issue.2-3, pp.231-240, 2009.


, , pp.901-907

P. M. Niedenthal and M. Brauer, Social Functionality of Human Emotion, Annual Review of Psychology, vol.63, issue.1, pp.259-285, 2012.


B. Nosek, M. R. Banaji, and J. T. Jost, Social and Psychological Bases of Ideology and System Justification, pp.480-506, 2009.


A. Nugier, P. Chekroun, K. Pierre, and P. M. Niedenthal, Group membership influences social control of perpetrators of uncivil behaviors, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.39, issue.6, pp.1126-1134, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01053057

E. J. Oh, R. L. Williams, S. L. Bliss, and K. R. Krohn, Constructive and Blind Patriotism: Relationship to Emphasis on Civil Liberties, National Security, and Militarism in a Korean and an American University, Korean Social Science Journal, vol.1, issue.36, pp.93-121, 2009.

M. Ojiambo and J. Louw, Political intolerance: The role of intergroup threat and negative intergroup emotion, Journal of Psychology in Africa, vol.25, issue.3, pp.208-215, 2015.


L. J. Olson, The nation-state and its ideology: A study of school children's views of nationalism, politics, and enmity, 1995.

D. Osborne, J. Lees-marshment, and C. Van-der-linden, National identity and the flag change referendum: Examining the latent profiles underlying New Zealanders' flag change support, New Zealand Sociology, issue.7, p.19, 2016.

D. Osborne, P. Milojev, and C. G. Sibley, Authoritarianism and National Identity: Examining the Longitudinal Effects of SDO and RWA on Nationalism and Patriotism, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol.43, issue.8, pp.1086-1099, 2017.


S. Otten, A. Mummendey, and M. Blanz, Intergroup discrimination in positive and negative outcome allocations: Impact of stimulus valence, relative group status, and relative group size, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol.22, issue.6, pp.568-581, 1996.


D. J. Packer, K. Fujita, and A. L. Chasteen, The motivational dynamics of dissent decisions: A goal-conflict approach, Social Psychological and Personality Science, vol.5, issue.1, pp.27-34, 2014.

C. S. Parker, Symbolic versus Blind Patriotism: Distinction without Difference? Political Research Quarterly, vol.63, pp.97-114, 2010.

M. T. Parker and R. Janoff-bulman, Lessons from morality-based social identity: The power of outgroup « hate, » not just ingroup « love, Social Justice Research, vol.26, issue.1, pp.81-96, 2013.

A. Parravano, J. A. Noguera, P. Hermida, and J. Tena-sánchez, Field Evidence of Social Influence in the Expression of Political Preferences: The Case of Secessionists Flags in Barcelona, PLoS ONE, vol.10, issue.5, 2015.

M. Paveau and . France, Discours d'outrage aux emblèmes et symboles de l'État. Outrages, insultes, blasphèmes et injures : Violences du langage et polices du discours, pp.109-135, 2007.

B. K. Payne, C. M. Cheng, O. Govorun, and B. D. Stewart, An inkblot for attitudes: Affect misattribution as implicit measurement, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.89, issue.3, pp.277-293, 2005.

J. Peetz and A. E. Wilson, Waving the Flag (or Not): Consequences and Antecedents of Social Norms About In-group Identification, Self and Identity, vol.12, issue.4, pp.447-466, 2013.


S. Pehrson, R. Brown, and H. Zagefka, When does national identification lead to the rejection of immigrants? Cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence for the role of essentialist in-group definitions, British Journal of Social Psychology, vol.48, issue.1, pp.61-76, 2009.


S. Pehrson and E. G. Green, Who we are and who can join us: National identity content and entry criteria for new immigrants, Journal of Social Issues, vol.66, issue.4, pp.695-716, 2010.


S. Penic, G. Elcheroth, and S. Reicher, Can Patriots Be Critical after a Nationalist War? The Struggle Between Recognition and Marginalization of Dissenting Voices: Can Patriots Be Critical after a Nationalist War, Political Psychology, vol.37, issue.4, pp.481-496, 2016.


C. Pereira, J. Vala, and R. Costa-lopes, From prejudice to discrimination: The legitimizing role of perceived threat in discrimination against immigrants, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.40, issue.7, pp.1231-1250, 2010.

C. Pietralunga and D. Revault-d'allones, , 2014.

P. K. Piff, A. G. Martinez, and D. Keltner, Me against we: In-group transgression, collective shame, and in-group-directed hostility, Cognition & Emotion, vol.26, issue.4, pp.634-649, 2012.

I. R. Pinto, J. M. Marques, J. M. Levine, and D. Abrams, Membership status and subjective group dynamics: Who triggers the black sheep effect?, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.99, issue.1, pp.107-119, 2010.

I. R. Pinto, J. M. Marques, J. M. Levine, and D. Abrams, Membership role and subjective group dynamics: Impact on evaluative intragroup differentiation and commitment to prescriptive norms, Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, vol.19, pp.570-590, 2016.


S. A. Popa and D. Dumitrescu, National but European? Visual manifestations of Europe in national parties' Euromanifestos since 1979, Party Politics, vol.23, issue.5, pp.526-537, 2017.


S. Richey, Civic engagement and patriotism, Social Science Quarterly, vol.92, issue.4, pp.1044-1056, 2011.

B. M. Riek, E. W. Mania, and S. L. Gaertner, Intergroup Threat and Outgroup Attitudes: A Meta-Analytic Review, Personality & Social Psychology Review, vol.10, issue.4, pp.336-353, 2006.


S. Roccas, Y. Klar, and I. Liviatan, The paradox of group-based guilt: Modes of national identification, conflict vehemence, and reactions to the in-group's moral violations, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.91, issue.4, pp.698-711, 2006.


A. Roos, « La Marseillaise » sifflée : Des précédents existent. Le Monde, vol.16, 2008.

E. Rosch, Principles of Categorization, Readings in Cognitive Science, pp.27-48, 1978.


D. M. Rothì, E. Lyons, and X. Chryssochoou, National Attachment and Patriotism in a European Nation: A British Study, Political Psychology, vol.26, issue.1, pp.135-155, 2005.


V. Roudometof, Nationalism, globalization and glocalization, vol.122, pp.18-33, 2014.

M. Rullo, F. Presaghi, and S. Livi, Reactions to ingroup and outgroup deviants: An experimental group paradigm for black sheep effect, PLoS ONE, issue.5, p.10, 2015.


S. Sacchi, E. Castano, and M. Brauer, Perceiving one's nation: Entitativity, agency and security in the international arena, International Journal of Psychology, vol.44, issue.5, pp.321-332, 2009.

T. Saguy and E. Halperin, Exposure to outgroup members criticizing their own group facilitates intergroup openness, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol.40, issue.6, pp.791-802, 2014.

G. Sahar, Patriotism, attributions for the 9/11 attacks, and support for war: Then and now, Basic and Applied Social Psychology, vol.30, issue.3, pp.189-197, 2008.


O. Sarrasin, E. G. Green, N. Fasel, O. Christ, C. Staerklé et al., , 2012.

, Opposition to antiracism laws across Swiss municipalities: A multilevel analysis, Political Psychology, vol.33, issue.5, pp.659-681

N. Satherley, D. Osborne, and C. G. Sibley, Who Is for (or Against) the National Flag? Ideological and Identity-Based Motivators of Attitudes: Who Is for (or Against) the National Flag?, 2018.


J. N. Sawires and M. J. Peacock, Symbolic Racism and Voting Behavior on Proposition 2091, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol.30, issue.10, pp.2092-2099, 2000.


R. T. Schatz, A Review and Integration of Research on Blind and Constructive Patriotism, Handbook of Patriotism, pp.1-19, 2018.

R. T. Schatz, Effects of concern for the national flag and concern for co-nationals on outgroup hostility, Présenté à International Society of Political Psychology Annual Meeting, 2019.

R. T. Schatz and H. Lavine, Waving the flag: National symbolism, social identity, and political engagement, Political Psychology, vol.28, issue.3, pp.329-355, 2007.


R. T. Schatz and E. Staub, Manifestations of blind and constructive patriotism: Personality correlates and individual-group relations, Patriotism: In the lives of individuals and nations, pp.229-245, 1997.

R. T. Schatz, E. Staub, and H. Lavine, On the Varieties of National Attachment: Blind Versus Constructive Patriotism, Political Psychology, vol.20, issue.1, pp.151-174, 1999.


D. Scheepers, N. R. Branscombe, R. Spears, and B. Doosje, The emergence and effects of deviants in low and high-status groups, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, vol.38, issue.6, pp.506-507, 2002.

D. Scheepers, N. Ellemers, and N. Sintemaartensdijk, Suffering from the possibility of status loss: Physiological responses to social identity threat in high status groups, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.39, issue.6, pp.1075-1092, 2009.


D. Scheepers, R. Spears, B. Doosje, and A. S. Manstead, Integrating identity and instrumental approaches to intergroup differentiation: Different contexts, different motives, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol.28, issue.11, pp.1455-1467, 2002.


D. Scheepers, R. Spears, B. Doosje, and A. S. Manstead, Two functions of verbal intergroup discrimination: Identity and instrumental motives as a result of group identification and threat, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol.29, issue.5, pp.568-577, 2003.


D. Scheepers, R. Spears, B. Doosje, and A. S. Manstead, Diversity in in-group bias: Structural factors, situational features, and social functions, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.90, issue.6, pp.944-960, 2006.

D. Scheepers, R. Spears, B. Doosje, and A. S. Manstead, The social functions of ingroup bias: Creating, confirming, or changing social reality, European Review of Social Psychology, vol.17, pp.359-396, 2006.

A. Scherer, The impact of political cues on information seeking and the need for cognitive closure, 2014.

J. Schimel, L. Simon, J. Greenberg, T. Pyszczynski, S. Solomon et al., Stereotypes and terror management: Evidence that mortality salience enhances stereotypic thinking and preferences, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.77, issue.5, pp.905-926, 1999.

E. Schlueter, B. Meuleman, and E. Davidov, Immigrant integration policies and perceived group threat: A multilevel study of 27 Western and Eastern European countries, Social Science Research, vol.42, issue.3, pp.670-682, 2013.


K. Schmid, M. Hewstone, N. Tausch, E. Cairns, and J. Hughes, Antecedents and consequences of social identity complexity: Intergroup contact, distinctiveness threat, and outgroup attitudes, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol.35, issue.8, pp.1085-1098, 2009.


N. Schori-eyal, M. R. Tagar, T. Saguy, and E. Halperin, The benefits of group-based pride: Pride can motivate guilt in intergroup conflicts among high glorifiers, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, vol.61, pp.79-83, 2015.


S. H. Schwartz, Universals in the Content and Structure of Values: Theoretical Advances and Empirical Tests in 20 Countries, Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, vol.25, pp.60281-60287, 1992.

S. H. Schwartz, Universalism Values and the Inclusiveness of Our Moral Universe, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol.38, issue.6, pp.711-728, 2007.


S. H. Schwartz, G. V. Caprara, and M. Vecchione, Basic personal values, core political values, and voting: A longitudinal analysis, Political Psychology, vol.31, issue.3, pp.421-452, 2010.


M. Sekerdej and S. Roccas, Love versus loving criticism: Disentangling conventional and constructive patriotism, The British Journal of Social Psychology, vol.55, issue.3, pp.499-521, 2016.


L. Shepherd, F. Fasoli, A. Pereira, and N. R. Branscombe, The role of threat, emotions, and prejudice in promoting collective action against immigrant groups, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.48, issue.4, pp.447-459, 2018.

M. Sherif, The Psychology of Social Norms, 1936.

M. Sherif, O. J. Harvey, B. J. White, W. R. Hood, and C. W. Sherif, Intergroup Conflict and Cooperation: The Robbers Cave Experiment, 1961.

, Marinthe Gaëlle -Approche psycho-sociale des dégradations de symboles nationaux -2020

C. G. Sibley, W. J. Hoverd, and J. Duckitt, What's in a flag? Subliminal exposure to New Zealand national symbols and the automatic activation of egalitarian versus dominance values, The Journal of Social Psychology, vol.151, issue.4, pp.494-516, 2011.


C. G. Sibley and J. H. Liu, New Zealand = bicultural? Implicit and explicit associations between ethnicity and nationhood in the New Zealand context, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.37, issue.6, pp.1222-1243, 2007.

E. Silver and L. Abell, Beyond Harm and Fairness: A Study of Deviance and Morality, Deviant Behavior, vol.37, issue.5, pp.496-508, 2016.

L. J. Skitka, Patriotism or Nationalism? Understanding Post, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol.35, issue.10, pp.1995-2011, 2001.


M. J. Slater, S. A. Haslam, and N. K. Steffens, Singing it for « us »: Team passion displayed during national anthems is associated with subsequent success, European Journal of Sport Science, vol.18, issue.4, pp.541-549, 2018.


A. Smeekes, J. Jetten, M. Verkuyten, M. J. Wohl, I. Jasinskaja-lahti et al., Regaining In-Group Continuity in Times of Anxiety About the, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01928213

, Group's Future: A Study on the Role of Collective Nostalgia Across 27 Countries, Social Psychology, vol.49, issue.6, pp.311-329

A. D. Smith, When is a Nation, Geopolitics, vol.7, issue.2, pp.5-32, 1991.


E. R. Smith, Social Identity and Social Emotions: Toward New Conceptualizations of Prejudice, Affect, Cognition and Stereotyping, pp.297-315, 1993.

I. H. Smith, K. Aquino, S. Koleva, and J. Graham, Even to Out-Groups: The Interactive Effect of Moral Identity and the Binding Moral Foundations, Psychological Science, vol.25, issue.8, pp.1554-1562, 2014.


, , pp.60328-60335

D. N. Somlo, W. D. Crano, and M. A. Hogg, You are either for us or against us: When are ambivalent in-group members sanctioned? Social Influence, vol.10, pp.202-213, 2015.


R. Spears, J. Jetten, and D. Scheepers, Distinctiveness and the definition of collective self: A tripartite model, pp.147-171, 2002.

R. Spears, D. Scheepers, J. Jetten, B. Doosje, N. Ellemers et al., Group Distinctiveness, and Social Identity: Getting and Using Social Structure, 2004.

C. M. Yzerbyt, &. O. Judd, and . Corneille, The psychology of group perception: Perceived variability, entitativity, and essentialism, pp.293-316

C. Spry and M. Hornsey, The influence of blind and constructive patriotism on attitudes toward multiculturalism and immigration, Australian Journal of Psychology, vol.59, issue.3, pp.151-158, 2007.

E. Staub, Blind versus constructive patriotism: Moving from embeddedness in the group to critical loyalty and action, Patriotism: In the lives of individuals and nations, pp.213-228, 1997.

R. R. Steele, M. T. Parker, and B. Lickel, Bias Within Because of Threat From Outside: The Effects of an External Call for Terrorism on Anti-Muslim Attitudes in the United States, Social Psychological and Personality Science, vol.6, issue.2, pp.193-200, 2015.


C. T. Steinman and J. A. Updegraff, Delay and Death-Thought Accessibility: A Meta-Analysis, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, issue.12, pp.1682-1696, 2015.


W. G. Stephan, K. A. Boniecki, O. Ybarra, A. Bettencourt, K. S. Ervin et al., The Role of Threats in the Racial Attitudes of Blacks and Whites, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol.28, issue.9, pp.1242-1254, 2002.


W. G. Stephan and C. W. Stephan, Predicting prejudice, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, vol.20, issue.3-4, pp.409-426, 1996.

W. G. Stephan and C. W. Stephan, An integrated threat theory of prejudice, 2000.

. Oskamp, Reducing prejudice and discrimination, pp.23-45

W. G. Stephan, O. Ybarra, and G. Bachman, Prejudice Toward Immigrants, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol.29, issue.11, pp.2221-2237, 1999.

W. G. Stephan, O. Ybarra, C. M. Martnez, J. Schwarzwald, and M. Tur-kaspa, Prejudice toward Immigrants to Spain and Israel: An Integrated Threat Theory Analysis, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol.29, issue.4, pp.559-576, 1998.


W. G. Stephan, O. Ybarra, and K. Rios, Handbook of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination, pp.255-278, 2016.

J. Stewart, M. Enciso-bendall, and C. V. Morgan, Jobs, Flags, and Laws: How Interests, Culture, and Values Explain Recruitment into the Utah Minuteman Project, Sociological Perspectives, vol.58, issue.4, pp.627-648, 2015.


C. C. Storari and E. G. Green, Intergroup distinctiveness and discriminatory immigration attitudes: The role of national identification, Basic and Applied Social Psychology, vol.34, issue.4, pp.367-375, 2012.

E. Stratmoen, T. J. Lawless, and D. A. Saucier, Taking a knee: Perceptions of NFL player protests during the National Anthem, Personality and Individual Differences, vol.137, pp.204-213, 2019.

N. Struch and S. H. Schwartz, Intergroup aggression: Its predictors and distinctness from in-group bias, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.56, issue.3, pp.364-373, 1989.


N. Sullivan and R. T. Schatz, Effects of Japanese national identification on attitudes toward learning English and self-assessed English proficiency, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, vol.33, issue.6, pp.486-497, 2009.

W. G. Sumner, Folkways: A study of the sociological importance of usages, manners, customs, mores, and morals, 1906.

N. Tabri, M. J. Wohl, and J. Caouette, Will we be harmed, will it be severe, can we protect ourselves?, 2018.

, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.48, issue.1, pp.72-85


H. Tajfel, Social identity and intergroup behaviour, Social Science Information, vol.13, issue.2, pp.65-93, 1974.

H. Tajfel, M. G. Billig, R. P. Bundy, and C. Flament, Social categorization and intergroup behaviour, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.1, issue.2, pp.149-178, 1971.


H. Tajfel and J. C. Turner, An integrative theory of intergroup conflict, Psychology of intergroup relations, pp.7-24, 1979.

H. Tajfel and A. L. Wilkes, Classification and Quantitative Judgement, British Journal of Psychology, vol.54, issue.2, pp.101-114, 1963.

M. Tarrant and E. Campbell, Responses to within-group criticism: Does past adherence to group norms matter?, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.37, issue.6, pp.1187-1202, 2007.


C. P. Teixeira, S. Demoulin, and V. Y. Yzerbyt, Playing with deviance: Typicality assessments of ingroup members as a strategy of outgroup approach: Playing with deviance, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.43, issue.1, pp.32-39, 2013.


D. Thiriet, L'aigle : Évolution d'un symbole en Allemagne et en Pologne. Le cadre de la recherche : les lieux de mémoire germano-polonais, vol.2, pp.209-246, 2010.


W. E. Thomas, R. Brown, M. J. Easterbrook, V. L. Vignoles, C. Manzi et al., Social Identification in Sports Teams: The Role of Personal, Social, and Collective Identity Motives, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol.43, issue.4, pp.508-523, 2017.


E. C. Tolman, Identification and the postwar world, The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, vol.38, issue.2, pp.141-148, 1943.

C. J. Torelli, C. Chiu, K. Tam, A. K. Au, and H. T. Keh, Exclusionary Reactions to Foreign Cultures: Effects of Simultaneous Exposure to Cultures in Globalized Space, Journal of Social Issues, vol.67, issue.4, pp.716-742, 2011.

G. A. Travaglino, Social sciences and social movements: The theoretical context, Contemporary Social Science, vol.9, issue.1, pp.1-14, 2014.


G. A. Travaglino, D. Abrams, G. Randsley-de-moura, J. M. Marques, and I. R. Pinto, , 2014.

, How groups react to disloyalty in the context of intergroup competition: Evaluations of group deserters and defectors, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, vol.54, pp.178-187

B. Trémolière, La rationalité des mortels : Les pensées de mort perturbent les processus analytiques, 2013.

D. J. Trump, Nobody should be allowed to burn the American flag-If they do, there must be consequences-Perhaps loss of citizenship or year in jail!, 2016.

, Consulté 31 janvier 2019, à l'adresse @realDonaldTrump website

D. J. Trump, octobre 18). The NFL has decided that it will not force players to stand for the playing of our National Anthem, 2017.

, Consulté 15 octobre 2018, à l'adresse @realdonaldtrump website

S. Tsukamoto and S. T. Fiske, Perceived threat to national values in evaluating stereotyped immigrants, The Journal of Social Psychology, vol.158, issue.2, pp.157-172, 2018.


E. Turiel, The Development of Social Knowledge: Morality and Convention, 1983.

J. C. Turner, M. A. Hogg, P. J. Oakes, S. D. Reicher, and M. S. Wetherell, Rediscovering the social group: A self-categorization theory, 1987.

R. H. Turner, The Public Perception of Protest, American Sociological Review, vol.34, issue.6, pp.815-831, 1969.

V. Turner, The Forest of Symbols: Aspects of Ndembu Ritual, 1967.

R. Tzanelli, Not My Flag!' Citizenship and nationhood in the margins of, Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol.29, issue.1, pp.27-49, 2000.


I. Vail, K. E. Arndt, J. Motyl, M. Pyszczynski, and T. , The aftermath of destruction: Images of destroyed buildings increase support for war, dogmatism, and death thought accessibility, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, vol.48, issue.5, pp.1069-1081, 2012.


J. Van-der-toorn, N. Ellemers, and B. Doosje, The threat of moral transgression: The impact of group membership and moral opportunity: Group membership and moral opportunity, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.45, issue.5, pp.609-622, 2015.


M. Verkuyten, Support for multiculturalism and minority rights: The role of national identification and out-group threat, Social Justice Research, vol.22, issue.1, pp.31-52, 2009.


L. Vezzali and D. Giovannini, Social dominance orientation, realistic and symbolic threat: Effects on Italians' acculturation orientations, intergroup attitudes and emotions toward immigrants, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, vol.17, issue.3, pp.141-159, 2010.

G. T. Viki and R. Calitri, Infrahuman outgroup or suprahuman ingroup: The role of nationalism and patriotism in the infrahumanization of outgroups, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.38, issue.6, pp.1054-1061, 2008.

A. Voci, The link between identification and in-group favouritism: Effects of threat to social identity and trust-related emotions, British Journal of Social Psychology, vol.45, issue.2, pp.265-284, 2006.

C. Von-scheve, M. Beyer, S. Ismer, M. Koz?owska, and C. Morawetz, Emotional entrainment, national symbols, and identification: A naturalistic study around the men's football World Cup, Current Sociology, vol.62, issue.1, pp.3-23, 2014.


C. Von-scheve and S. Ismer, Towards a Theory of Collective Emotions, Emotion Review, vol.5, issue.4, pp.406-413, 2013.

C. K. Wang, A. Khoo, C. B. Goh, S. Tan, and S. Gopinathan, Patriotism and National Education: Perceptions of trainee teachers in Singapore, Asia Pacific Journal of Education, vol.26, issue.1, pp.51-64, 2006.

D. Watson, L. A. Clark, and A. Tellegen, Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.54, issue.6, pp.1063-1070, 1988.

D. Webber, R. Zhang, J. Schimel, and J. Blatter, Finding death in meaninglessness: Evidence that death-thought accessibility increases in response to meaning threats, British Journal of Social Psychology, vol.55, issue.1, pp.144-161, 2016.


D. M. Webster and A. W. Kruglanski, Individual differences in need for cognitive closure, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.67, issue.6, pp.1049-1062, 1994.


A. Weigold, I. K. Weigold, and S. N. Natera, Mean scores for self-report surveys completed using paper-and-pencil and computers: A meta-analytic test of, 2018.

G. Marinthe, Approche psycho-sociale des dégradations de symboles nationaux : conséquences sur les relations intergroupes, implication de l'identification et des

, Marinthe Gaëlle -Approche psycho-sociale des dégradations de symboles nationaux -2020 equivalence, Computers in Human Behavior, vol.86, pp.153-164


A. Weigold, I. K. Weigold, and E. J. Russell, Examination of the equivalence of self-report survey-based paper-and-pencil and internet data collection methods, Psychological Methods, vol.18, issue.1, pp.53-70, 2013.

O. Weisel and R. Böhm, « Ingroup love » and « outgroup hate » in intergroup conflict between natural groups, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, vol.60, pp.110-120, 2015.


M. Welch, The flag-burning controversy: Protection of a venerated object as social control, American Journal of Criminal Justice, vol.17, issue.1, pp.1-17, 1993.


M. Welch, Flag burning: Moral panic and the criminalization of protest, 2000.

J. M. Wellen and M. Neale, Deviance, Self-Typicality, and Group Cohesion: The Corrosive Effects of the Bad Apples on the Barrel, Small Group Research, vol.37, issue.2, pp.165-186, 2006.

I. I. White, M. H. Branscombe, and N. R. , Patriotism à la Carte": Perceived Legitimacy of Collective Guilt and Collective Pride as Motivators for Political Behavior, Political Psychology, vol.40, issue.2, pp.223-240, 2019.

C. Wilcox, L. Sigelman, and E. Cook, Some like it hot: Individual differences in responses to group feeling thermometers, Public Opinion Quarterly, vol.53, issue.2, pp.246-257, 1989.


R. L. Williams, L. N. Foster, and K. R. Krohn, Relationship of Patriotism Measures to Critical Thinking and Emphasis on Civil Liberties versus National Security: Patriotism and Critical Thinking, vol.8, pp.139-156, 2008.


C. Willis-esqueda, R. H. Delgado, and K. Pedroza, Patriotism and the impact on perceived threat and immigration attitudes, The Journal of Social Psychology, vol.157, issue.1, pp.114-125, 2017.

J. P. Wilson and K. Hugenberg, When under threat, we all look the same: Distinctiveness threat induces ingroup homogeneity in face memory, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, vol.46, issue.6, pp.1004-1010, 2010.


C. Wirtz, J. Van-der-pligt, and B. Doosje, Negative attitudes toward Muslims in The Netherlands: The role of symbolic threat, stereotypes, and moral emotions, Journal of Peace Psychology, vol.22, issue.1, pp.75-83, 2016.


A. Wlodarczyk, N. Basabe, and M. Bobowik, The perception of realistic and symbolic threat and its influence on prejudice, ingroup favouritism and prosocial response: The native population in the face of immigration, Revista de Psicología Social, vol.29, issue.1, pp.60-89, 2014.


M. J. Wohl and N. R. Branscombe, Collective angst: How threats to the future vitality of the ingroup shape intergroup emotion, pp.171-181, 2008.


M. J. Wohl and N. R. Branscombe, Group Threat, Collective Angst, and Ingroup Forgiveness for the War in Iraq, Political Psychology, vol.30, issue.2, pp.193-217, 2009.


M. J. Wohl, N. R. Branscombe, and S. Reysen, Perceiving Your Group's Future to Be in Jeopardy: Extinction Threat Induces Collective Angst and the Desire to Strengthen the Ingroup, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol.36, issue.7, pp.898-910, 2010.


M. J. Wohl, B. Giguère, N. R. Branscombe, and D. N. Mcvicar, One day we might be no more: Collective angst and protective action from potential distinctiveness loss, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.41, issue.3, pp.289-300, 2011.


R. Y. Wong and Y. Hong, Dynamic Influences of Culture on Cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma, Psychological Science, vol.16, issue.6, pp.429-434, 2005.

S. Worchel and D. Coutant, The Tangled Web of Loyalty: Nationalism, Patriotism, and Ethnocentrism, Patriotism: In the Lives of Individuals and Nations, pp.190-210, 1997.

, Marinthe Gaëlle -Approche psycho-sociale des dégradations de symboles nationaux -2020

J. D. Wright, I. Cheung, and V. M. Esses, Is Support for Confederate Symbols Motivated by Southern Pride or Racism? Further Distinctions Between "Traditionalists" and "Supremacists, 2019.

M. Wright and J. Citrin, Saved by the Stars and Stripes? Images of Protest, Salience of Threat, and Immigration Attitudes, American Politics Research, vol.39, issue.2, pp.323-343, 2011.


V. Yzerbyt and L. Cambon, The Dynamics of Compensation: When Ingroup Favoritism Paves the Way for Outgroup Praise, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol.43, issue.5, pp.587-600, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02140306

V. Yzerbyt, C. M. Judd, and O. Corneille, The Psychology of Group Perception: Perceived Variability, Entitativity, and Essentialism, 2004.

D. Zahan, Les drapeaux et leur symbolique, Université des sciences humaines, 1993.

B. Zawadzki, Limitations of the scapegoat theory of prejudice, The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, vol.43, issue.2, pp.127-141, 1948.

S. Zhang, M. W. Morris, C. Cheng, and A. J. Yap, Heritage-culture images disrupt immigrants' second-language processing through triggering first-language interference, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.110, issue.28, pp.11272-11277, 2013.


T. Zick, What Trump Misses About Free Speech, USNews.Com, 2017.

L. Erdfelder and . Buchner, , 2007.

, Bien que cette étude utilise le paradigme des groupes minimaux, nous avons conservé une population

, Les groupes diffèrent également entre eux sur la dimension de chaleur, F(2,51) = 41, vol.74

. Enfin,

, Le groupe allemand est donc perçu plus compétent, moins chaleureux et donc

. Fiske, Tsukamoto & Fiske, 1999.

, Une ANOVA mixte avec les outrages associés aux différents actes en variable

, Concernant les différences perçues entre les actes, des tests post-hoc avec un ajustement

, Marinthe Gaëlle -Approche psycho-sociale des dégradations de symboles nationaux -2020

. Faul, 1 : Non, 2007.

, L'identification au groupe des Français?e?s (traduit à partir de Roccas et al., 2006) était mesurée par huit items

, L'outrage perçu des dégradations de symboles était évalué pour une série de six actes 41

, Une personne qui? : insulte le chef de l'Etat ; insulte un ministre de l'Etat ; siffle la 41 Ces actes sont tous considérés comme des délits d'outrage aux symboles nationaux dans la loi française

, Prétest 6 -Angoisse individuelle, mesure d'accessibilité des pensées de mort [Chapitre 6] Nous nous sommes appuyé·e·s sur les travaux de Trémolière (2013), qui a transposé la tâche initiale d'accessibilité de pensées liées à la mort (Greenberg, Pyszczynski, Solomon, Simon, & Breus, 1994) en français, Trémolière, 1994.

J. Hayes, . Schimel, . Arndt, and . Faucher, Nous avons prétesté cette tâche d'accessibilité, 2010.

G. Faul, , 2007.

R. Traduit-de, Parmi ces mots, six étaient susceptibles d'être complétés soit par un mot neutre, soit par un mot relatif à la mort Le patriotisme constructif, 2005.

«. Si, Les principes référant à la dimension collective sont le principe de loyauté

, ? = .662, M = 3.90, ET = 0.99, d'autorité

, « Le respect des autorités est quelque chose que tout enfant a besoin apprendre. »), ? = .678, M = 3.74, ET = 1.07, et de pureté

, « Si quelqu'un?e a souffert ou non émotionnellement. » ; « Une des pires choses qu'une personne pourrait faire est de blesser un animal sans défense. »), ? =, Les principes référant à la dimension individualisante sont les principes de non-nuisance

L. «-la-justice-est-le-besoin, ET = 0.86. L'indice total de 43 L'alpha de l'indice de non-nuisance est faible. Nous avons cependant observé les corrélations en utilisant cet indice, tout en étant prudent?e?s sur les interprétations faites. Les résultats concernant la non-nuisance sont mis en relation avec l'autre principe de moralité individualisante, ? = .701, M = 5, vol.64

. Annexe-ii--, Échelles Echelle d'identification en huit items (Roccas, Klar, & Liviatan, 2006, traduite pour la version française)

, ? Lorsque je parle des Français, j'utilise habituellement le "nous" plutôt que le "ils

, Echelle d'identification en cinq items (Dambrun, 2001.

, ? Le groupe des Français est important pour moi

, ? Je m'identifie fortement au groupe des Français

, ? Je me sens fortement lié au groupe des Français

, ? Je suis heureux d'être un membre du groupe des Français

, ? Je me sens proche des autres Français

, Marinthe Gaëlle -Approche psycho-sociale des dégradations de symboles nationaux -2020

, Echelle d'angoisse collective en cinq items

, Mesure d'angoisse individuelle -tâche d'accessibilité des pensées liées à la mort Version française, 2013.

, Pour compléter ces mots, par exemple, vous pouvez trouver des noms communs (singuliers ou pluriels), des adjectifs, des verbes

. Voici-un-exemple,

R. Traduite-de, , vol.10, 2005.

G. Marinthe, Approche psycho-sociale des dégradations de symboles nationaux : conséquences sur les relations intergroupes, p.385

, Marinthe Gaëlle -Approche psycho-sociale des dégradations de symboles nationaux -2020

. Partir-de-graham, Echelle d'immoralité perçue, 2011.

. Métayer-&-pahlavan, , 2014.

?. Cet, Immoralité individualisante (six items)

, Echelle de menace perçue (traduite à partir de Brambilla, Sacchi, Pagliaro, & Ellemers, 2013.

, Menace à la sécurité du groupe (trois items)

?. Cet,

A. Vi---;-faul, Post-test, corrélations de l'identification et des patriotismes G*Power, 2007.

. Le, nous

C. Le-patriotisme, , 1999.