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Investigating chromosome dynamics through Hi-C assembly

Abstract : The advent of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies has set off an expanding trend in genome assembling and scaffolding. Such genome quality is an essential preliminary to understand interactions between and among chromosomes. We built upon a computational and technological framework that let us tackle genome assembly problems of increasing complexity. Our methods are mainly based on chromosome conformation capture technologies such as Hi-C. In a Hi-C experiment, DNA molecules are cross-linked with the surrounding proteins and form a large, static protein-DNA complex. This captures the spatial conformation by trapping together molecules that are physically close to each other. Therefore, Hi-C is very suitable for 3D genome structure analysis, which lets us infer a wealth of information about the genome. It was indeed shown that the tridimensional structure of the genome can be unambiguously linked to its 1D structure thanks to the physical properties of DNA polymers. Moreover, such 3D proximity also gives access to cell compartment information, thus opening the way for an additional approach for metagenomic binning, known as meta3C. In this work, we expand upon these methods and apply them to use cases with more and more complexity. We first improve on tools for genome assembly and demonstrate their validity with the scaffolding of Ectocarpus sp., then unveil rearrangements in joint scaffoldings of Trichoderma reesei and Cataglyphis hispanica. Lastly, we use the same approach with metagenomic binning on live mouse microbiome samples to reconstruct hundreds of genomes.
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Lyam Baudry. Investigating chromosome dynamics through Hi-C assembly. Quantitative Methods [q-bio.QM]. Sorbonne Université, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019SORUS026⟩. ⟨tel-02935877⟩

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