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A. Cremoux, D. Tallet, . Maso, ;. Berton, . Cremoux et al., Il a par exemple été proposé que des modifications d'influences corticales sur les mécanismes d'inhibition réciproque au niveau spinale pouvaient survenir chez les patients blessés médullaires, Précédemment, il a été montré que les patients blessés médullaires présentaient des réorganisations au niveau corticale et cortico musculaire, 1996.

&. Knikou-&-mummidisetty-;-xia and . Rymer, Ces modifications pourraient être responsable de la co-activation anormalement élevée des muscles antagonistes. C'est pourquoi, nous avons cherché à investiguer si une suractivation musculaire pouvait également survenir dans les muscles agonistes controlatéraux à ceux du mouvement volontaire. L'hypothèse était que les MM pourraient être exacerbés chez les patients bléssés médullaires, 2005.

, Cette contribution expérimentale annexe fait l'objet de l'article suivant en préparation

J. Tisseyre, S. Cremoux, D. Amarantini, J. Tallet, . Hoy et al., However, mirror muscle contractions (MM) can still be recorded with electromyography (EMG) in healthy adults during tasks requiring to perform low or high force levels, 1996.

&. Arányi, . Rösler, and . Chang, They are even increased in neurological populations, especially in brain-injured patients, 1998.

, Cincotta & Ziemann, 2005.

F. Hoy, A. Bradshaw, ;. Georgiou-karistianis, and . Kuo, On the other hand, the "bilateral activation theory" postulates that the activation of the motor area in one hemisphere during voluntary movement facilitates the activation of the same motor area in the opposite hemisphere leading to MM (Cernacek, 1961). Hence, one motor cortex inhibits the activity of the opposite motor cortex to prevent MM during unilateral motor tasks, This theory is supported by studies using transcranial magne, 2004.

, contraction" condition between EEG signal from C3 and C4 and EMG signal from left and right TBlh and TBlt during right elbow extension. For each limb, the CMC magnitude was finally averaged for the two elbow extensors muscles, TBlh and TBlt, resulting in four EEG-EMG pairs : C3-Left extensors (CMC IPSI -left), C3-Right extensors (CMC CONTRA -right), C4-Left extensors (CMC CONTRA -left) and C4

A. Hummel, . Altenmüller, . Dichgans, ;. Gerloff, and . Tallet, this division included the following right-left EEG-EEG pairs : FC3-FC4, C3-C4, C3-Cz, C4-Cz and CP3-CP4. Statistical analysis For all analyses, the right active limb and the left non-active limb were considered sewithout equal variance, Student's t-test or Welch's t-test were applied, respectively. Right active limb. A first one-tailed independent t-test was performed to test a difference on MVC torque value between AB and SCI. Other one-tailed independent t-tests were performed to find a difference on the normalized torque production and the normalized EMG activations of elbow extensors muscles between AB and SCI. Finally, a two-way mixed facto, TRCoh magnitude in ? frequency band, 2002.

. Sci and . Boorman, This interpretation is in line with results of Cremoux et al. (2016) showing an increased muscular activity of the antagonist muscles of the active limb, which could be explained by a decreased of the spinal inhibition mechanisms, 1996.

&. Knikou-&-mummidisetty-;-xia, ;. Rymer, and . Klingels, Our findings thus extent those of Cremoux et al. (2016) to the contralateral muscles, and support the hypothesis that a cervical lesion of the corticospinal tract may induce a general disinhibition of muscle activity, not only on the antagonist muscles of the active limb, but also on the contralateral muscles, Such alternative neurophysiological active hand, 2005.

. Hansen, This result could seem surprising because corticomuscular coherence in the ? band has been reported to disappear in primates following a complete spinal cord lesion (Nishimura, Morichika, & Isa, 2009) and human studies reported reduced intermuscular coherence suggesting a decreased of common corticospinal drive after incomplete spinal injury, Firstly, we do not find any difference in corticomuscular coherence between the contralateral motor cortex and the active limb in SCI compared to AB participants, 2005.