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Corrélats comportementaux, neurophysiologiques et neuropsychologiques des mouvements miroirs chez le sujet sain et le patient cérébro-lésé

Abstract : Symmetrical bimanual movements represent the default coordinated behavior of the central nervous system. Thus, execution of strictly unimanual motor tasks requires a cerebral network that can limit symmetrical bimanual movements. Transient alteration or dysfunction of these neural circuits can lead to mirror movements (MM), which are defined as involuntary movements or contractions occurring in homologous muscles contralateral to voluntary movements. Particularly discreet in healthy adults or exacerbated in different pathological conditions, MM seem to be asymmetric between the right and left upper limbs. Nevertheless, the conditions under which this asymmetry occurs and the associated brain correlates remain poorly understood. Thus, the main objectives of this thesis were to (1) investigate the conditions under which behavioural asymmetry of MM appears in right-handed healthy adults and brain-injured patients, (2) investigate the motor, attentional and executive correlates of behavioural asymmetry of MM in right-handed healthy adults and (3) explore the link between attentional and executive functions and MM in healthy adults and brain-injured patients. For this purpose, we adopted a multimodal approach that includes behavioural, neurophysiological and neuropsychological investigations. Our results reveal that the behavioural asymmetry of MM depends on the type of task performed (strength level and rhythmic aspect of the unimanual task) and highlight a cerebral asymmetry with greater ipsilateral motor activations during left unimanual movement than right unimanual movement in right-handed healthy adult. An increase in attentional and executive activations was also observed in healthy adults during a task involving asymmetric MM, and a neuropsychological evaluation revealed a link between the degree of executive control and MM in healthy adults and brain-injured patients. The overall results of this thesis suggest that the asymmetry of MM could reflect differences in cerebral functioning in the control of each limb. Finally, our results support the idea of increased involvement of cognitive processes in the regulation of voluntary and involuntary motor control.
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Joseph Tisseyre. Corrélats comportementaux, neurophysiologiques et neuropsychologiques des mouvements miroirs chez le sujet sain et le patient cérébro-lésé. Neurosciences [q-bio.NC]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019TOU30224⟩. ⟨tel-02934221⟩

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