. .. Unforced-flows,

. .. , 116 6.3.1 Conceptual picture of the main drag reduction mechanisms, Mechanisms of drag changes under asymmetric forcing

. .. Further, 126 6.4.3 Outcomes for drag reduction of blunt bodies

, 1.1 Blunt bodies drag generation mechanisms

.. .. Extensions,

.. .. Perspectives,

, On this basis, some perspectives are provided for future work with an emphasis on wake manipulation for drag reduction

.. .. Extensions,

.. .. Perspectives,

P. References-abramson, B. Vukasinovic, and A. Glezer, Direct measurements of controlled aerodynamic forces on a wire-suspended axisymmetric body, Exp. fluids, vol.50, pp.1711-1725, 2011.

S. R. Ahmed, G. Ramn, and G. Faltin, Some salient features of the time averaged ground vehicle wake, SAE Tech. Report. No, vol.840300, 1984.

M. Amitay and A. Glezer, Role of actuation frequency in controlled flow reattachment over a stalled airfoil, AIAA Journal, vol.40, issue.2, 2002.

G. S. Apelt and C. J. West, The effects of tunnel blockage and aspect ratio on the mean flow past a circular cylinder with reynolds numbers between 10 4 and 10 5, J. Fluid Mech, vol.114, pp.361-377, 1982.

S. Balachandar, R. Mittal, and F. M. Najjar, Properties of the mean recirculation region in the wakes of two-dimensional bluff bodies, J. Fluid Mech, vol.351, pp.167-199, 1997.

D. Barros, Wake and drag manipulation of a bluff body using periodic fluidic forcing, 2015.

D. Barros, J. Borée, O. Cadot, A. Spohn, and B. R. Noack, Forcing symmetry exchanges and flow reversals in turbulent wakes, J. Fluid Mech, vol.829, p.1, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01856248

D. Barros, J. Borée, B. R. Noack, and A. Spohn, Resonances in the forced turbulent wake past a 3d blunt body, Phys. Fluids, vol.28, issue.065104, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01856282

D. Barros, J. Borée, B. R. Noack, A. Spohn, and T. Ruiz, Bluff body drag manipulation using pulsed jets and coanda effect, J. Fluid Mech, vol.805, pp.422-459, 2016.

D. Barros, T. Ruiz, J. Borée, and B. R. Noack, Control of a three-dimensional blunt body wake using low and high frequency pulsed jets, International Journal of Flow Control, vol.6, pp.61-74, 2014.

G. K. Batchelor, A proposal concerning laminar wakes behind bluff bodies at large reynolds number, J. Fluid Mech, vol.1, pp.388-398, 1956.

P. W. Bearman, Investigation of the flow behind a two-dimensional model with a blunt trailing edge and fitted with splitter plates, J. Fluid Mech, vol.21, pp.241-255, 1965.

P. W. Bearman, The effect of base bleed on the flow behind a two-dimensional model with a blunt trailing-edge, Aeronaut. Q, vol.18, pp.207-224, 1967.

P. W. Bearman and M. M. Zdravkovich, Flow around circular cylinder near a plane boundary, J. Fluid Mech, vol.89, pp.33-47, 1978.

L. Beaudet, Etude expérimentale et numérique du décrochage dynamique sur uneéoliennè a axe vertical de forte solidité, 2014.

J. F. Beaudoin, Controle actif d'écoulement en aérodynamique automobile, 2004.

E. Berger, D. Scholz, and M. Schumm, Coherent vortex structures in the wake of a sphere and a circular disk at rest and under forced vibrations, J. Fluids Struct, vol.4, pp.231-257, 1990.

T. Berk and B. Ganapathisubramani, Effects of vortex-induced velocity on the development of a synthetic jet issuing into a turbulent boundary layer, J. Fluid Mech, vol.870, pp.651-679, 2019.

T. Berk, T. Medjoun, and B. Ganapathisubramani, Entrainment effects in periodic forcing of the flow over a backward-facing step, Phys. Rev. Fluids, vol.2, issue.074605, 2017.

P. Bohorquez, E. Sanmiguel-rojas, A. Sevilla, J. I. Jiménez-gonzález, and C. Martínez-bazán, Stability and dynamics of the laminar wake past a slender blunt-based axisymmetric body, J. Fluid Mech, vol.676, pp.110-144, 2011.

G. Bonnavion, Dynamics of the unstable wake modes in automotive aerodynamics : from simplified models to real vehicles, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01915961

G. Bonnavion and O. Cadot, Unstable wake dynamics of rectangular flat-backed bluff bodies with inclination and ground proximity, J. Fluid Mech, vol.854, pp.196-232, 2018.

G. Bonnavion and O. Cadot, Boat-tail effects on the global wake dynamics of a flat-backed body with rectangular section, J. Fluid Struct, 2019.

G. Bonnavion, O. Cadot, V. Herbert, S. Parpais, R. Vigneron et al., Asymmetry and global instability of real minivan's wake, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 2019.

E. Boujo and O. Cadot, Stochastic modelling of a freely rotating disk facing a uniform flow, J. Fluids Struct, vol.86, pp.34-43, 2019.

R. D. Brackston, J. M. De-la-cruz, A. Wynn, G. Rigas, and J. F. Morrison, , 2016.

, Stochastic modelling and feedback control of bistability in a turbulent bluff body wake, J. Fluid Mech, vol.802, pp.726-749

R. D. Brackston, A. Wynn, and J. Morrison, Modelling and feedback control of vortex shedding for drag reduction of a turbulent bluff body wake, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, vol.71, pp.127-136, 2018.

P. Bradshaw, The analogy between streamline curvature and buoyancy in turbulent shear flow, J. Fluid Mech, vol.36, pp.177-191, 1969.

P. Bradshaw, Effects of streamline curvature on turbulent flow, 1973.

. Dtic-document,

T. J. Bridges and P. J. Morris, Differential eigenvalue problems in which the parameter appears nonlinearly, J. Comput. Phys, vol.55, pp.437-460, 1984.

M. Brillouin, Les surfaces de glissement d'helmholtz et la résistance des fluides, Annales de chimie et de physique XXII, pp.145-230, 1910.

T. Buren, . Van, E. Whalen, and M. Amitay, Impact of orifice orientation on a finite-span synthetic jet interaction with a crossflow, Phys. Fluids, vol.28, issue.037106, 2016.

S. Cabitza, Active control of the wake from a rectangular-sectioned body, 2015.

O. Cadot, Stochastic fluid structure interaction of three-dimensional plates facing a uniform flow, J. Fluid Mech, vol.794, p.1, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01299271

O. Cadot, A. Evrard, and L. Pastur, Imperfect supercritical bifurcation in a threedimensional turbulent wake, Phys. Rev. E, vol.91, issue.063005, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01164472

T. Castelain, M. Michard, M. Szmigiel, D. Chacaton, and D. Juvé, Identification of flow classes in the wake of a simplified truck model depending on the underbody velocity, J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod, vol.175, pp.352-363, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02085847

I. P. Castro and P. Bradshaw, The turbulence structure of a highly curved mixing layer, J. Fluid Mech, vol.73, pp.265-304, 1976.

L. N. Cattafesta and M. Sheplak, Actuators for active flow control, Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech, vol.43, pp.247-272, 2011.

S. Chaligné, Contrôle du sillage d'un corps non profilé. application expérimentaleà une maquette simplifiée de véhicule industriel, 2013.

S. Chaligné, T. Castelain, M. Michard, and D. Juvé, Active control of the flow behind a two-dimensional bluff body in ground proximity, Comptes Rendus Mécanique, vol.341, issue.3, pp.289-297, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00931422

H. Choi, W. P. Jeon, and J. Kim, Control of flow over a bluff body, Ann. Rev. Fluid. Mech, vol.40, pp.113-139, 2008.

H. Choi, J. Lee, and H. Park, Aerodynamics of heavy vehicles, Ann. Rev. Fluid. Mech, vol.46, pp.441-468, 2014.

M. Chrust, S. Goujon-durand, and J. E. Wesfreid, Loss of a fixed plane of symmetry in the wake of a sphere, J. Fluid Struct, vol.41, pp.51-56, 2013.

S. Courtine, Etude expérimentale des décollements provoqués par une paroi courbe : topologie etévolution spatio-temporelle, 2006.

J. A. Dahan, A. S. Morgans, and S. Lardeau, Feedback control for form-drag reduction on a bluff body with a blunt trailing edge, J. Fluid Mech, vol.704, pp.360-387, 2012.

J. D'alembert, Essai d'une nouvelle théorie de la résistance des fluides, 1752.

L. Dalla-longa, O. Evstafyeva, and A. S. Morgans, Simulations of the bi-modal wake past three-dimensional blunt bluff bodies, J. Fluid Mech, vol.866, pp.791-809, 2019.

L. Dalla-longa, A. S. Morgans, and J. A. Dahan, Reducing the pressure drag of a dshaped bluff body using linear feedback control, Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics, vol.31, pp.567-577, 2017.

A. Darabi and I. Wygnanski, Active management of naturally separated flow over a solid surface. part 1. the forced reattachment process, J. Fluid Mech, vol.510, pp.105-129, 2004.

A. Darabi and I. Wygnanski, Active management of naturally separated flow over a solid surface. part 2. the separation process, J. Fluid Mech, vol.510, pp.131-144, 2004.

J. M. De-la-cruz, R. D. Brackston, and J. F. Morrison, Adaptive base-flaps under variable cross-wind, 2017.

J. M. De-la-cruz, A. R. Oxlade, and J. F. Morrison, Passive control of base pressure on an axisymmetric blunt body using a perimetric slit, Phys. Rev. Fluids, vol.2, issue.043905, 2017.

P. E. Dimotakis and G. L. Brown, The mixing layer at high reynolds number : largestructure dynamics and entrainment, J. Fluid Mech, vol.78, pp.535-560, 1976.

R. J. Englar, Advanced aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, handling and safety of heavy vehicles, SAE Tech. Report. No, 2001.

Y. Eulalie, Etude aérodynamique et controle de la trainée sur un corps de ahmed culot droit, 2014.

A. Evrard, O. Cadot, V. Herbert, D. Ricot, R. Vigneron et al., Fluid force and symmetry breaking modes of a 3d bluff body with a base cavity, J. Fluids Structures, vol.61, pp.99-114, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01249010

O. Evstafyeva, A. S. Morgans, and L. Dalla-longa, Simulation and feedback control of the ahmed body flow exhibiting symmetry breaking behaviour, J. Fluid Mech, vol.817, p.2, 2017.

D. Fabre, F. Auguste, and J. Magnaudet, Bifurcations and symmetry breaking in the wake of axisymmetric bodies, Phys. Fluids, vol.20, pp.1-4, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00874366

C. W. Ford, . Pitt, and H. Babinsky, Lift and the leading-edge vortex, J. Fluid Mech, vol.720, pp.280-313, 2013.

J. B. Freund and M. G. Mungal, Drag and wake modification of axisymmetric bluff bodies using coanda blowing, J. Aircraft, vol.31, issue.3, pp.572-578, 1994.

V. Gentile, B. Van-oudheusden, F. Schrijer, and F. Scarano, The effect of angular misalignment on low-frequency axisymmetric wake instability, J. Fluid Mech, vol.813, 2017.

J. H. Gerrard, The mechanics of the formation region of vortices behind bluff bodies, J. Fluid Mech, vol.25, pp.401-413, 1966.

M. Gharib, E. Rambod, and K. Shariff, A universal time scale for vortex ring formation, J. Fluid Mech, vol.360, pp.121-140, 1998.

A. Glezer and M. Amitay, Synthetic jets, Ann. Rev. Fluid. Mech, vol.34, issue.1, pp.503-529, 2002.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00202553

A. Glezer, M. Amitay, and A. M. Honohan, Aspects of low-and high-frequency actuation for aerodynamic flow control, AIAA journal, vol.43, issue.7, pp.1501-1511, 2005.

M. Grandemange, Analysis and control of three-dimensional turbulent wakes : from axisymmetric bodies to road vehicles, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancées (ENSTA), 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pastel-00947364

M. Grandemange, M. Gohlke, and O. Cadot, Reflectional symmetry breaking of the separated flow over three-dimensional bluff bodies, Phys. Rev. E, vol.86, issue.035302, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00838864

M. Grandemange, M. Gohlke, and O. Cadot, Bi-stability in the wake past parallelepiped bodies with various aspect ratios and wall effects, Phys. Fluids, vol.25, issue.9, p.95103, 2013.

M. Grandemange, M. Gohlke, and O. Cadot, Turbulent wake past a three-dimensional blunt body. part 1. global modes and bi-stability, J. Fluid Mech, vol.722, pp.51-84, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01161541

M. Grandemange, M. Gohlke, and O. Cadot, Statistical axisymmetry of the turbulent sphere wake, Exp. Fluids, vol.55, 1838.

M. Grandemange, M. Gohlke, and O. Cadot, Turbulent wake past a three-dimensional blunt body. part 2. experimental sensitivity analysis, J. Fluid Mech, vol.752, pp.439-461, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01161541

M. Grandemange, A. Mary, M. Gohlke, and O. Cadot, Effect on drag of the flow orientation at the base separation of a simplified blunt road vehicle, Exp. Fluids, vol.54, 1529.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01228154

D. Greenblatt and I. J. Wygnanski, The control of flow separation by periodic excitation, Progress in Aerospace science, vol.36, pp.487-545, 2000.

Y. Haffner, J. Borée, A. Spohn, and T. Castelain, Mechanics of bluff body drag reduction during transient near wake reversals, J. Fluid Mech, vol.894, p.14, 2020.

Y. Haffner, J. Borée, A. Spohn, and T. Castelain, Unsteady coanda effect and drag reduction of a turbulent wake, J. Fluid Mech, vol.899, 2020.

Y. Haffner, T. Castelain, J. Borée, and A. Spohn, Manipulation of three-dimensional asymmetries of a turbulent wake for drag reduction, J. Fluid Mech, 2020.

Y. Haffner, K. Mariette, E. Bideaux, J. Borée, D. Eberard et al., Large-scale asymmetries of a turbulent wake : insights and closed-loop control for drag reduction, 55th 3AF International Conference on Applied Aerodynamics, 2020.

C. M. Ho and P. Huerre, Perturbed free shear layers, Ann. Rev. Fluid. Mech, vol.16, issue.1, pp.365-422, 1984.

W. H. Hucho and G. Sovran, Aerodynamics of road vehicles, Ann. Rev. Fluid. Mech, vol.25, pp.485-537, 1993.

P. Huerre and P. A. Monkewitz, Local and global instabilities in spatially developing flows, Ann. Rev. Fluid. Mech, vol.22, pp.473-537, 1990.

M. Kadosch, Déviation des jets par adhérenceà une paroi convexe, J. Phys. Phys. Appl, vol.19, issue.S4, pp.1-12, 1958.

R. De-kat and B. W. Van-oudheusden, Instantaneous planar pressure deternination from piv in turbulent flow, Exp. Fluids, vol.52, 2012.

B. Khalighi, S. Zhang, C. Koromilas, S. R. Balkanyi, L. P. Bernal et al., Experimental and computational study of unsteady wake flow behind a bluff body with a drag reduction device, 2001.

L. E. Kinsler, A. R. Frey, A. B. Coppens, and J. V. Sanders, Fundamentals of Acoustics, 1999.

G. Kirchhoff, 1869 Zur theorie freier flüssigkeitsstrahlen, Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik LXX, issue.4

L. Klotz, S. Goujon-durand, J. Rokicki, and J. E. Wesfreid, Experimental investigation of the flow behind a cube for moderate reynolds numbers, J. Fluid Mech, vol.750, pp.73-98, 2014.

P. S. Krueger, J. O. Dabiri, and M. Gharib, Vortex ring pinch-off in the presence of simultaneously initiated uniform background co-flow, Phys. Fluids, vol.15, issue.7, 2003.

P. S. Krueger, J. O. Dabiri, and M. Gharib, The formation number of vortex rings formed in unifrom background co-flow, J. Fluid Mech, vol.556, pp.147-166, 2006.

T. J. Lambert, B. Vukasinovic, and A. Glezer, A freely yawing axisymmetric bluff body controlled by near-wake flow coupling, J. Fluid Mech, vol.863, pp.1123-1156, 2019.

R. Li, D. Barros, J. Borée, O. Cadot, B. R. Noack et al., Feedback control of bimodal wake dynamics, Exp. Fluids, vol.57, issue.158, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01856290

R. Li, J. Borée, B. R. Noack, L. Cordier, and F. Harambat, Drag reduction mechanisms of a car model at moderate yaw by bi-frequency forcing, Phys. Rev. Fluids, vol.4, issue.034604, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02283160

R. Li, B. R. Noack, L. Cordier, J. Borée, and F. Harambat, Drag reduction of a car model by linear genetic programming control, Exp. Fluids, vol.58, issue.8, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01856270

Y. Li, H. Bai, and N. Gao, Drag of a d-shaped bluff body under small amplitude harmonic actuation, Theor. Appl. Mech. Letters, vol.5, issue.1, 2015.

X. Liu and J. Katz, Instantaneous pressure and material acceleration measurements using a four-exposure piv system, Exp. Fluids, vol.41, issue.2, 2006.

K. H. Lo and K. Kontis, Flow around an articulated lorry model. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 82, 2017.

M. Lorite-díez, J. I. Jimenéz-gonzález, C. Gutiérrez-montes, and C. Mart?ez-bazán, Drag reduction of slender blunt-based bodies using optimized rear cavities, J. Fluids Struct, vol.74, pp.158-177, 2017.

M. Lorite-díez, J. I. Jimenéz-gonzález, C. Gutiérrez-montes, and C. Mart?ez-bazán, Effects of rear cavities on the wake behind an accelerating d-shaped bluff body, Phys. Fluids, vol.30, issue.044103, 2018.

M. Lorite-díez, J. I. Jimenéz-gonzález, and L. Pastur, Mart?ez-Bazán, C. & Cadot, 0. 2020 Experimental analysis of the effect of local base blowing on three-dimensional wake modes, J. Fluid Mech, vol.883, p.53

J. Lucas, O. Cadot, V. Herbert, S. Parpais, and J. Délery, A numerical investigation of the asymmetric wake mode of a squareback ahmed body -effect of a base cavity, J. Fluid Mech, vol.831, pp.675-697, 2017.

J. L. Lumley, Stochastic tools in turbulence, 1970.

W. A. Mair, Reduction of base drag by boat-tailed afterbodies in low-speed flow, Aeronautical quarterly, vol.20, issue.4, pp.307-320, 1969.

K. Manesh, The interaction of jets with crossflow, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech, vol.45, issue.1, pp.379-407, 2013.

K. Mariette, Phd k. mariette, 2020.

A. Mariotti, G. Buresti, G. Gaggini, and M. V. Salvetti, Separation control and drag reduction for boat-tailed axisymmetric bodies through contoured transverse grooves, J. Fluid Mech, vol.832, pp.514-549, 2017.

A. Mariotti, G. Buresti, and M. V. Salvetti, Connection between base drag, separating boundary layer characteristics and wake mean recirculation length of an axisymmetric bluntbased body, J. Fluids Struct, vol.55, pp.191-203, 2015.

A. Mariotti, G. Buresti, and M. V. Salvetti, Separation delay through contoured transverse grooves on a 2d boat-tailed bluff body : effects on drag reduction and wake flow features, Eur. J. Mech. B/Fluids, vol.74, pp.351-362, 2019.

O. Marquet and M. Larsson, Global wake instabilities of low aspect-ratio flat-plates, Eur. J. Mech. B-Fluid, vol.49, pp.400-412, 2015.

O. Marquet, D. Sipp, and L. Jacquin, Sensitivity analysis and passive control of cylinder flow, J. Fluid Mech, vol.615, pp.221-252, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01026007

D. Maull and B. Hoole, The effect of boat-tailing on the flow round a two-dimensional blunt-based aerofoil at zero incidence, The Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society, vol.71, issue.684, pp.854-858, 1967.

P. Meliga, J. Chomaz, and D. Sipp, Global mode interaction and pattern selection in the wake of a disk : a weakly non-linear expansion, J. Fluid Mech, vol.633, pp.159-189, 2009.

A. Michalke, On spatially growing disturbances in an inviscid shear layer, J. Fluid Mech, vol.23, pp.521-544, 1965.

M. Michard, S. Sesmat, T. Castelain, E. Jondeau, E. Bideaux et al., Unsteady pulsed jets using pneumatic valves for separation control : effect of internal acoustic waves on external flow structure, 2017.

T. Morel, Aerodynamic drag of bluff body shapes characteristic of hatch-back cars, SAE Technical Paper, vol.780267, 1978.

S. C. Morris and J. F. Foss, Turbulent boundary layer to single-stream shear layer : the transition region, J. Fluid Mech, vol.494, pp.187-221, 2003.

R. Natarajan and A. Acrivos, The instability of steady flows past spheres and disks, J. Fluid Mech, vol.254, pp.323-344, 1993.

B. Van-oudheusden, Piv-based pressure measurements, Meas. Sci. Technol, vol.24, issue.3, 2013.

A. Oxlade, High-frequency pulsed jet forcing of an axisymmetric bluff body wake, 2013.

A. R. Oxlade, J. F. Morrison, A. Qubain, and G. Rigas, High-frequency forcing of a turbulent axisymmetric wake, J. Fluid Mech, vol.770, pp.305-318, 2015.

V. Parezanovic, J. C. Laurentie, C. Fourment, J. Delville, J. P. Bonnet et al., Mixing layer manipulation experiment, Flow Turbulence Combust, vol.94, pp.155-173, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01629283

H. Park, D. Lee, W. P. Jeon, S. Hahn, J. Kim et al., Drag reduction in flow over a two-dimensional bluff body with a blunt trailing edge using a new passive device, J. Fluid Mech, vol.563, pp.389-414, 2006.

G. V. Parkinson and T. Jandall, A wake source model for bluff body potential flow, J. Fluid Mech, vol.40, 1970.

M. Pastoor, L. Henning, B. R. Noack, R. King, and G. Tadmor, Drag reduction in flow over a two-dimensional bluff body with a blunt trailing edge using a new passive device, J. Fluid Mech, vol.563, pp.389-414, 2006.

G. Pavia, M. Varney, M. Passmore, and M. Almond, Three dimensional structure of the unsteady wake of an axisymmetric body, Phys. Fluids, vol.31, issue.2, 2019.

J. Pfeiffer and R. King, Multivariable closed-loop flow control of drag and yaw moment for a 3d bluff body, 2012.

J. Pfeiffer and R. King, Robust control of drag and lateral dynamic response for road vehicles exposed to cross-wind gusts, Exp. Fluids, vol.59, issue.45, 2018.

J. Philip and I. Marusic, Large-scale eddies and their role in entrainment in turbulent jets and wakes, Phys. Fluids, vol.24, issue.055108, 2012.

B. Pier, Local and global instabilities in the wake of a sphere, J. Fluid Mech, vol.603, pp.39-61, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00632344

P. Pineau and C. Bogey, Steepened mach waves near supersonic jets : study of azimuthal structure and generation process using conditional averages, J. Fluid Mech, vol.880, pp.594-619, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02341714

B. Plumejeau, S. Delprat, L. Keirsbulck, M. Lippert, and W. Abassi, Ultra-local model-based control of the square-back ahmed body wake, Phys. Fluids, vol.31, issue.085103, 2019.

M. Provansal, C. Mathis, and L. Boyer, Bénard-von kármán instability : transient and forced regimes, J. Fluid Mech, vol.182, pp.1-22, 1987.

A. Qubain, Active control of a turbulent bluff body wake, 2009.

G. Rigas, A. S. Morgans, R. D. Brackston, and J. F. Morrison, Diffusive dynamics and stochastic models of turbulent axisymmetric wakes, J. Fluid Mech, vol.778, p.2, 2015.

G. Rigas, A. R. Oxlade, A. S. Morgans, and J. F. Morrison, Low-dimensional dynamics of a turbulent axisymmetric wake, J. Fluid Mech, vol.755, 2014.

A. Roshko, On the drag and shedding frequency of two-dimensional bluff bodies, NACA TN, p.3169, 1954.

A. Roshko, On the wake and drag of bluff bodies, J. Aeronautical Sciences, vol.22, issue.2, 1955.

A. Roshko, Experiments on the flow past a circular cylinder at very high reynolds number, J. Fluid Mech, vol.10, pp.345-356, 1961.

A. Roshko, Free shear layers, base pressure and bluff-body drag, 1993.

M. Rouméas, P. Gilliéron, and A. Kourta, Analysis and control of the near-wake flow over a square-back geometry, Computers & Fluids, vol.38, issue.1, pp.60-70, 2009.

T. Ruiz, C. Sicot, L. E. Brizzi, J. Laumonier, J. Borée et al., Unsteady near wake of a flat disk normal to a wall, Exp. Fluids, vol.47, pp.4-5, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00460225

P. G. Saffman, Vortex dynamics, 1992.

R. Sau and K. Mahesh, Dynamics and mixing of vortex rings in crossflow, J. Fluid Mech, vol.604, pp.389-409, 2008.

P. Schlatter and R. &örlü, Assessment of direct numerical simulation data of turbulent boundary layers, J. Fluid Mech, vol.659, pp.116-126, 2010.

H. J. Schmidt, R. Woszidlo, C. N. Nayeri, and C. O. Paschereit, Drag reduction on a rectangular bluff body with base flaps and fluidic oscillators, Exp. Fluids, vol.56, issue.151, 2015.

O. T. Schmidt and P. Schmid, A conditional space-time pod formalism for intermittent and rare events : example of acoustic bursts in turbulent jets, J. Fluid Mech, vol.867, p.2, 2019.

A. Sevilla and C. Martínez-bazán, Vortex-shedding in high renolds number axisymmetric bluff-body wakes : local linear instability and global bleed control, Phys. Fluids, vol.16, pp.3460-3469, 2004.

K. Shariff and A. Leonard, Vortex rings, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech, vol.24, issue.1, pp.235-279, 1992.

B. Smith and A. Glezer, The formation and evolution of synthetic jets, Phys. Fluids, vol.10, issue.9, pp.2281-2297, 1998.

A. J. Smits and T. Lim, Flow visualization, Techniques and Examples, 2000.

A. Spohn and P. Gilliéron, Flow separations generated by a simplified geometry of an automotive vehicle, IUTAM Symposium: Unsteady Separated Flows, 2002.

K. Steiros and M. Hultmark, Drag on flat plates of arbitrary porosity, J. Fluid Mech, vol.853, p.3, 2018.

F. Stella, N. Mazellier, P. Joseph, and A. Kourta, Mass entrainment-based model for separating flows, Phys. Rev. Fluids, vol.3, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02059904

F. Stella, N. Mazellier, and A. Kourta, Scaling of separated shear layers : an investigation of mass entrainment, J. Fluid Mech, vol.826, pp.851-887, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01920121

P. Sujar-garrido, M. Michard, T. Castelain, and Y. Haffner, Identification of efficient flow control strategies for truck model drag reduction, 11th International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena (TSFP11), 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02405203

V. V. Sychev, A. I. Ruban, V. V. Sychev, and G. L. Korolev, Asymptotic theory of separated flows, 1998.

M. Szmigiel, Effet du flux de soubassement sur la dynamique du sillage d'un corps non profiléà culot droit : Application du contrôle actif pour la réduction de traînée de véhicule industriel, 2017.

S. Taneda, Experimental investigation of the wake behind a sphere at low reynolds numbers, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn, vol.11, pp.1104-1108, 1956.

S. Taneda, Experimental investigation of the wakes behind cylinders and plates at low reynolds numbers, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn, vol.11, pp.302-307, 1956.

M. C. Thompson, T. Leweke, and M. Provansal, Kinematics and dynamics of sphere wake transition, J. Fluid Struct, vol.15, pp.575-585, 2001.

A. Towne, O. T. Schmidt, and T. Colonius, Spectral proper orthogonal decomposition and its relationship to dynamic mode decomposition and resolvent analysis, J. Fluid Mech, vol.847, pp.821-867, 2018.

R. Trip and J. H. Fransson, Bluff body boundary-layer modification and its effect on the near-wake topology, Phys. Fluids, vol.29, issue.095105, 2017.

M. Van-dyke, Higher-order boundary-layer theory, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech, vol.1, pp.265-292, 1969.

M. Van-dyke, An album of fluid motion, 1982.

E. Varon, J. Aider, Y. Eulalie, S. Edwige, and P. Gilotte, Adaptive control of the dynamics of a fully turbulent bimodal wake using real-time piv, Exp. Fluids, vol.60, p.124, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02368969

E. Varon, Y. Eulalie, S. Edwige, P. Gilotte, and J. Aider, Chaotic dynamics of large-scale structures in a turbulent wake, Phys. Rev. Fluids, vol.2, issue.034604, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02111690

R. Volpe, P. Devinant, and A. Kourta, Experimental characterization of the unsteady natural wake of the full-scale square back ahmed body: flow bi-stability and spectral analysis, Exp. Fluids, vol.56, issue.5, pp.1-22, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01186708

M. Waldon, T. Peacock, G. B. Jacobs, M. Helu, and G. Haller, Experimental and numerical investigation of the kinematic theory of unsteady separation, J. Fluid Mech, vol.611, pp.1-11, 2008.

J. Wang, C. Zhang, and J. Katz, Gpu-based, parallel-line, omni-directional integration of measured pressure gradient field to obtain the 3d pressure distribution, Exp. Fluids, vol.60, issue.4, 2019.

R. Wille and H. Fernholz, Report on the first european mechanics colloquium, on the coanda effect, J. Fluid Mech, vol.23, pp.801-819, 1965.

C. H. Williamson, Vortex dynamics in the cylinder wake, Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech, vol.28, pp.477-539, 1996.

D. T. Wong, .. Mair, and W. A. , Boat-tailed afterbodies of square section as drag-reduction devices, J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod, vol.611, pp.1-11, 1983.

W. W. Yeung and G. V. Parkinson, Base pressure prediction in bluff-body potentialflow models, J. Fluid Mech, vol.423, pp.381-394, 2000.

K. B. Zaman and A. K. Hussain, Turbulence suppression in free shear flows by controlled excitation, J. Fluid Mech, vol.103, pp.133-159, 1981.

M. M. Zdravkovich, , vol.7, pp.197-201, 1985.

M. M. Zdravkovich, Flow around circular cylinders : fundamentals, 1997.

B. F. Zhang, K. Liu, Y. Zhou, S. To, and J. Tu, Active drag reduction of a high-drag ahmed body based on steady blowing, J. Fluid Mech, vol.856, pp.351-396, 2018.

B. F. Zhang, Y. Zhou, and S. To, Unsteady flow structures around a high-drag ahmed body, J. Fluid Mech, vol.777, pp.291-326, 2015.

J. Zhou, R. J. Adrian, S. Balachandar, and T. M. Kendall, Mechanisms for generating coherent packets of hairpin vortices in channel flow, J. Fluid Mech, vol.387, pp.353-396, 1999.