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Etude des vésicules extracellulaires endothéliales et autres marqueurs de toxicité du Benzo[a]pyrène : influence d’extraits de microalgues d’origine marine

Abstract : Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), are environmental pollutants associated with cancers and cardiovascular diseases. The aims of the present thesis have been : (1) to identify biomarkers of a risk of developing these pathologies due to PAHs, and (2) to test the preventing effects of natural products on HMEC-1 endothelial cells. In this context, extracellular vesicles (EV) : exosomes (EXO) and microvesicles (MV), accessible in biological fluids, seem to be promising non-invasive biomarkers. EV composition and production depend on the type and physiopathological state of the cell. Our results demonstrate that some PAHs stimulate in vitro and in vivo EV production and modify their content. We have further shown that the overproduction of EXO depends on the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) unlike the MV. We have studied the influence of two extracts of microalgae, O. tauri and P. tricornutum, rich in omega-3 and pigments, on the toxicity of B[a]P. We have observed that O. tauri extract can influence the toxicity of B[a]P. Indeed, apoptosis and EV production were decreased likely through reduction of the expression of CYP1A1, a B[a]P bioactivation enzyme. In addition, the B[a]P-induced expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL1-β was reduced. The P. tricornutum extract only inhibited the expression of the B[a]P-induced cytokine IL-8 expression. Overall, this thesis suggests a potential application of EVs as biomarkers of PAH toxicity, and the possible use of O. tauri extract in the prevention of PAHs-mediated pathologies.
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  • HAL Id : tel-02933130, version 1

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Manon Le Goff. Etude des vésicules extracellulaires endothéliales et autres marqueurs de toxicité du Benzo[a]pyrène : influence d’extraits de microalgues d’origine marine. Biochimie [q-bio.BM]. Université du Maine, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020LEMA1007⟩. ⟨tel-02933130⟩

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