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Gestion diagrammatique des connaissances sur les lignées techniques de télescopes

Thomas Guy 1
1 LRSM - Laboratoire des Recherches sur les Sciences de la Matière
IRFU - Institut de Recherches sur les lois Fondamentales de l'Univers : DRF/IRFU
Abstract : Central device of astronomy, the telescope is also one of the very first scientific instruments. We propose to deliver an innovative analysis based on genetic mechanology. This method of analyzing the structures and the evolutions of technical objects is inspired by the work of Jacques Lafitte and Gilbert Simondon. In particular, this involves identifying the appearance of new technical schemes and relating them to the technical lineage to which they belong. In this context, we develop several concepts and tools to extract, formalize and enrich the knowledge about inventions that have emerged during the concretization process of telescope technical lineages. The collected information is not passive archived data : its formalization through diagrams must turn them into technological knowledge, which clarifies the operation of the instrument and allow to trace its genealogy. By analyzing the design processes, as well as the competition between the different lineages of telescopes, we achieve a better understanding of the technical evolution patterns underlying the development of these instruments and are able to formulate very general technical trends. Those latters are accompanied, in the case of telescopes, by evolutionary patterns resulting from external performance imperatives as well as from internal technical necessities. The explanation of these patterns, as well as the emerging processes to which they give rise, make it possible to understand the long time dynamics and anticipate difficulties for future missions. Thus, our approach is neither normative nor positive: through a constant dialectic between the formulation of our « laws of evolution » and the historical data, we exhibit, with a certain objectivity, some regularities in the evolution of telescopes, in a historical perspective that is both retrospective and prospective.
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Thomas Guy. Gestion diagrammatique des connaissances sur les lignées techniques de télescopes. Histoire, Philosophie et Sociologie des sciences. Université Paris-Saclay, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020UPASS032⟩. ⟨tel-02932351⟩

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