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Étude de l’effet « dwell » dans le Ti-6Al-4V : mécanismes de déformation et d’amorçage de fissures en relation avec l’orientation cristallographique locale de la phase αp

Abstract : The introduction of a hold time at maximum stress during the loading of an (α+β) titanium alloys leads to a reduction in the number of cycles to failure. This life debit, called “dwell effect” goes in hand with a higher plastic strain uptake at failure and a transition of the fatal crack initiation from surface to the volume. Despite more than 40 years of scientific research, the origins of this phenomenon, which is closely linked to the viscoplastic behavior of titanium alloy at room temperature, remains unclear. In the literature, the main efforts were focused on elucidating the mechanism of crack initiation. Several models have been proposed but the lack of experimental data with a statistical significance about the crack initiation sites under dwell-fatigue loading prevented to reach a general agreement. Moreover, few studies have investigated the influence of the hold time at maximum stress on the deformation mechanisms, although they precede crack initiation and govern the associated mechanisms under cyclic loading. The presented work is a study of the dwell effect through the analysis of the influence of the hold time at maximum stress in order to clarify the link between plasticity and crack initiation. In this aim, several fatigue and dwell fatigue tests have been performed on a Ti-6Al-4V alloy with a bimodal microstructure. An extensive study of deformation mechanism of the αp phase in relation to the heterogeneous mechanical fields influenced by load shedding between neighboring grains or interactions between slip bands and grain boundaries, has been performed. EBSD analyses and slip trace analysis were employed in this aim. The deformation mechanisms identified by these techniques (basal, prismatic, pyramidal and slip, interface sliding and twinning) were compared for different hold periods at maximum stress at similar cumulated plastic strain. Then, a microstructural configuration promoting crack initiation has been identified. It enabled to propose a new crack initiation mechanism. In addition, this mechanism is unique for crack initiation under fatigue and dwell-fatigue loadings and for surface and subsurface crack initiation. The combination of the results obtained on plasticity and crack initiation clarifies some features of the dwell effect and suggests some outlooks for future work.
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Cyril Lavogiez. Étude de l’effet « dwell » dans le Ti-6Al-4V : mécanismes de déformation et d’amorçage de fissures en relation avec l’orientation cristallographique locale de la phase αp. Autre. ISAE-ENSMA Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et d'Aérotechique - Poitiers, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020ESMA0004⟩. ⟨tel-02930407⟩

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