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Entre pouvoir et vouloir apprendre, évolution des relations entre les fonctions exécutives et l’apprentissage autorégulé de l’enfance à l’adolescence

Abstract : Self-regulated learning integrates motivational theories such as self-efficacy and goal setting, but also learning management strategies such as monitoring. It is often pointed out as responsible for the academic success or failure of a learner. Self-regulated learning can be defined as the thoughts, strategies and behaviors activated by a learner to achieve a predefined goal (Shunk & Zimmerman, 1998). This concept shares many points with the executive functions and metacognitive capacities (monitoring and control processes) which led us to examine, through various studies, the relationship between these two concepts. This research project aims at better understanding the links between the learner’s cognitive control (executive functions and metacognition) and the ability to regulate learning. We particularly focused on analysing the evolution of these relations between childhood and adolescence. Three studies were conducted. The first enabled us to develop a self-regulated learning assessment scale for CM1 and CM2 students. In addition, we studied the links between the executive functions, metacognition and self-regulated learning among the same population, as well as measured the effect of self-regulated learning training for first-year high school students. The results of these studies were combined with those of a previous research focused on the adults (Laurent, Fenouillet, Kaplan, Pinabiaux, & Montalembert, in preparation). They demonstrate a non-linear evolution of some parameters during development. Indeed, the abilities of inhibition and mental flexibility of students in CM1 and CM2 are related to their ability to regulate learning while we observe no significant relationship in the group of adolescents. Among the adults, we had previously found that executive difficulties were compensated by an increased use of self-regulation strategies (Laurent et al., in preparation). Contrary to our expectations, the adolescents did not benefit from the self-regulated learning training, both in the short and the long terms. The non-linear development of cerebral maturation as well as the evolution of the interest in school activities during development could be an explanation. This research brings new insights into the links between self-regulated learning and executive functions, as well as into the metacognitive mechanisms underlying the learning process. Future research may focus on the study of groups known for their executive disturbances or weak metacognitive abilities.
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Pauline Laurent. Entre pouvoir et vouloir apprendre, évolution des relations entre les fonctions exécutives et l’apprentissage autorégulé de l’enfance à l’adolescence. Psychologie. Université de Nanterre - Paris X, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020PA100014⟩. ⟨tel-02929408⟩

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