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Aléas et risques naturels (inondations, mouvements de terrain) dans le Nordeste du Brésil : une approche géographique appliquée à la Région du Cariri (Crato et Barbalha, Ceará)

Abstract : In the Southern countries as elsewhere, the increasing seriousness of the consequences of natural disasters illustrates the essential part of an increasing vulnerability of populations, property and infrastructures, linked with demographic growth, poverty, social disparities and insufficient planning. In Brazil, legislative and operational responses followed the disasters which had occurred between 2008 and 2011 in several regions. Geographers should play an essential part in the preparation of such measures. This is the scope of this thesis, which is based upon a geographical approach of the question in the Cariri region of Northeast Brazil. This work also includes a comparative approach, in order to analyze lessons from the French experience in the domain of risk management and prevention, and to study the possibilities of transposing them in the Brazilian context. The analysis of local geographical factors (types of hazards, population and property at risk) is followed by that of information obtained about floods which occurred in the study area during the time of our research work and before. It also includes original data on mass movements at various scales which were identified from field work. Risk perception and management are investigated by the means of a questionnaire submitted to residents neighbouring rivers identified as dangerous. Part of these data are transcribed in the form of maps, in an attempt to draw a zonation of hazards, population and property at risk at local scale, in order to provide useful elements for an urban planning including risk management and prevention. This work is put in perspective through a review of disasters and risks at national scale, and of the measures that were taken at federal and more local scales. This review is used as a basis for a comparative study which bears on the management of natural disasters in France (Draguignan). Although the needs in delimitation of areas at risk are the same in both countries, the consequences which are drawn are different since, until now, there is no equivalent of the regulatory zoning of the French « PPRI », at least in the study area. However, if lessons can be transposed from one country to the other, this is mainly in this regulatory domain. Future orientations that can be retained from this work are mainly found in improvements that can be expected from wider and better organized interdisciplinary collaborations
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Alexandra de Oliveira Magalhães. Aléas et risques naturels (inondations, mouvements de terrain) dans le Nordeste du Brésil : une approche géographique appliquée à la Région du Cariri (Crato et Barbalha, Ceará). Géographie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019USPCC058⟩. ⟨tel-02929182⟩

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