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Caractérisation in vivo des propriétés antimicrobiennes de la souche probiotique Lcr35®

Abstract : Antibiotics and antifungals are one of the greatest discoveries of medicine and have helped save millions of lives. However, their effectiveness is threatened by the adaptation of microorganisms that become resistant. This phenomenon is particularly related to the abnormally high consumption of antimicrobial molecules, especially in France. Even though these resistances are mainly acquired by bacteria, pathogenic yeasts such as the genus Candida do not escape the rule. Therefore, the scientific community and health services must implement as soon as possible alternatives to traditional drugs. Among these alternatives, the use of probiotic microorganisms whose antifungal potential has already been demonstrated using preclinical models (cell cultures, laboratory animals) and clinical studies is particularly promising. This is the case of the Live Biotherapeutic Microorganism Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lcr35® strain whose anti-C. albicans has been demonstrated in previous work but failed to describe the mechanisms of action. Understanding them has become a strategic need for the development of new treatments for humans.An innovative experimental approach, using the nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans, has been implemented. The aim was to simulate a fungal infection and treat it with Lcr35® using preventive and curative approaches. These were followed by means of tests of longevity and survival of the host, by the study of its transcriptome (in a targeted and global way), all in connection with the follow-up of the activity of a factor transcription, DAF-16. We thus demonstrated that Lcr35® induced a significantly increased survival of the host, including after infection by Candida. The analysis of the transcriptome of C. elegans and the use of mutant strains showed the involvement of the p38 MAPK and DAF-2 / DAF-16 signaling pathways, pathways involved in longevity and pathogen control. Also, in vitro Caco-2 intestinal cell assays showed significant inhibition of pathogen growth and adhesion by Lcr35®. These results suggest that the bacterium Lcr35® has a direct action on the pathogen causing its death but also by modulating the transcriptional response of the host via highly conserved signaling pathways. Further study, targeting the host metabolome, would allow a better understanding of the mechanisms and adapt the industrial design of LBM according to the therapeutic target.
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Submitted on : Thursday, September 3, 2020 - 9:46:28 AM
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Cyril Poupet. Caractérisation in vivo des propriétés antimicrobiennes de la souche probiotique Lcr35®. Santé. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020CLFAC008⟩. ⟨tel-02928987⟩

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