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The roles of FANCD2 in the maintenance of common fragile site stability

Abstract : Common fragile sites (CFSs) are genomic regions prone to form breaks and gaps on metaphase chromosomes after replicative stress and promote genomic instability in the earliest steps of tumor development. Proteins involved in replication/repair of CFSs are necessary to prevent their instability. Among them is FANCD2, a key protein of the FANC pathway necessary to resolve inter-strand crosslinks and defective in Fanconi Anemia (FA). FA is a rare genomic instability disorder characterized by bone marrow failure, congenital abnormalities and predisposition to acute myeloid leukemia and epithelial cancer. Genomic instability in FA is supposed to predispose patients to cancers. Importantly, CFSs are more unstable in FA and chromosome breaks observed in FA cells occur preferentially at CFSs. During my PhD, we identified a new role of FANCD2 in CFS stability maintenance. We show that FANCD2 attenuates transcription of the large genes present at CFSs, preventing their instability. Moreover, we demonstrate that transcription is necessary for FANCD2 recruitment and function at CFSs. Importantly, we identified the metabolic stress as a signal triggering CFS gene expression and FANCD2 is necessary to modulate this response. Reducing this stress is a promising therapeutic issue to prevent CFS and genomic instability in FA.
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Philippe Fernandes. The roles of FANCD2 in the maintenance of common fragile site stability. Cancer. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLS292⟩. ⟨tel-02927783⟩

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