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Identification des voies biochimiques stimulées par le récepteur purinergique P2X7 qui sont impliquées dans le clivage protéolytique du précurseur de la protéine amyloïde (APP)

Abstract : The amyloid protein precursor (APP) can be cleaved in neural cells by α-secretases to produce the soluble APP ectodomain (sAPPα), which is neuroprotective. We have shown previously that activation of the purinergic receptor P2X7 (P2X7R), a member of the P2X receptor family of ATP-gated cation channels, triggers sAPPα shedding from neural cells. Here, we demonstrate that theactivation of Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin proteins (ERM) is required for the P2X7R-dependent proteolyticprocessing of APP leading to sAPPα release. Indeed, the down regulation of ERM by siRNA blocksthe P2X7R-dependent shedding of sAPPα. We also show that P2X7R stimulation triggers thephosphorylation of ERM. Thus, ezrin translocates to the plasma membrane to interact with P2X7R.Using specific pharmacological inhibitors, we have established the order in which several enzymestrigger the P2X7R-dependent release of sAPPα. Thus, a Rho-kinase and the MAPK modules ERK1/2and JNK act upstream of ERM while a PI3Kinase activity is triggered downstream. This work for the first time identifies ERM as major partners in the regulated non-amyloidogenic processing of APP. Inaddition, we have recently established that the stimulation of P2X7R leads to the proteolytic cleavage of NrCAM by ADAM17 and the shedding of the soluble extracellular domain of NrCAM. Our results clearly show that the proteolytic cleavage of NrCAM is dependant of ERM activation and fixation tothe intracellular region of NrCAM. Thus, our results strongly suggest that ERM are required for the proteolytic cleavage of numerous substrates after P2X7R stimulation. Our findings suggest that ERM play a central role in the proteolytic cleavage of transmembrane proteins and act as molecular linkswhich aggregate ADAMs and substrates at the plasma membrane promoting the cleavage of substrates.
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Amel Rayah. Identification des voies biochimiques stimulées par le récepteur purinergique P2X7 qui sont impliquées dans le clivage protéolytique du précurseur de la protéine amyloïde (APP). Biochimie, Biologie Moléculaire. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PA11T043⟩. ⟨tel-02927761⟩

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